Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Basis of Presentation

Basis of Presentation
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2012
Basis of Presentation [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation

1. Basis of Presentation

Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, a Delaware corporation (the "Company" or "Ligand"), is a biotechnology company that focuses on drug discovery and early-stage development and partnering of pharmaceuticals that address critical unmet medical needs or that are more effective and/or safer than existing therapies, more convenient to administer and are cost effective. The Company sold its Oncology Product Line (“Oncology”) and Avinza Product Line (“Avinza”) on October 25, 2006 and February 26, 2007, respectively. The operating results for Oncology and Avinza have been presented in the accompanying consolidated financial statements as “Discontinued Operations”.

The Company has incurred significant losses since its inception. At June 30, 2012, the Company’s accumulated deficit was $682.7 million and the Company had negative working capital of $9.3 million. Based on recent product approvals and regulatory developments, as well as management’s plans including expense reductions, if necessary, the Company believes its currently available cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments as well as its current and future royalty, license and milestone revenues will be sufficient to satisfy its anticipated operating and capital requirements through at least the next twelve months. The Company’s future operating and capital requirements will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to: the pace of scientific progress in its research and development programs; the potential success of these programs; the scope and results of preclinical testing and clinical trials; the time and costs involved in obtaining regulatory approvals; the costs involved in preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining and enforcing patent claims; competing technological and market developments; the amount of royalties on sales of the commercial products of its partners; the efforts of its collaborative partners; obligations under its operating lease agreements; and the capital requirements of any companies the Company previously acquired, including Pharmacopeia, Inc. (“Pharmacopeia”), Neurogen Corporation (“Neurogen”), Metabasis Therapeutics, Inc. (“Metabasis”) and CyDex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“CyDex”). Management’s plans and efforts may not fully address any significant adverse impact from any or all of these factors and the Company may be required to obtain additional financing, which may not be available at acceptable terms, or at all.

Principles of Consolidation

The condensed consolidated financial statements include the Company’s wholly owned subsidiaries, Seragen, Inc. (“Seragen”), Nexus Equity VI LLC (“Nexus”), Pharmacopeia, Neurogen, Metabasis and CyDex. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Basis of Presentation

The Company’s accompanying unaudited consolidated condensed financial statements as of June 30, 2012 and for the three and six months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011 have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America for annual financial statements. The Company’s consolidated condensed balance sheet at December 31, 2011 has been derived from the audited financial statements at that date, but does not include all of the information and footnotes required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for a fair presentation of the financial position and results of operations of the Company, and its subsidiaries have been included. Operating results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2012 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2012. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes therein included in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2011.


Use of Estimates

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, including disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. The Company’s critical accounting policies are those that are both most important to the Company’s financial condition and results of operations and require the most difficult, subjective or complex judgments on the part of management in their application, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Because of the uncertainty of factors surrounding the estimates or judgments used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements, actual results may materially vary from these estimates.

Income (Loss) Per Share

Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing net income or loss by the weighted average number of common shares and vested restricted stock units outstanding. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing net income or loss by the weighted average number of common shares and vested restricted stock units outstanding and the weighted average number of dilutive common stock equivalents, including stock options and non-vested restricted stock units. Common stock equivalents are only included in the diluted earnings per share calculation when their effect is dilutive. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2012 and for the three months ended June 30, 2011, no potential common shares are included in the computation of any diluted per share amounts, including income (loss) per share from discontinued operations and net loss per share, as the Company reported a loss from continuing operations. For the six months ended June 30, 2011, 14,734 common shares are included in the computation of diluted income per share. Potential common shares, the shares that would be issued upon the exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants and the vesting of restricted shares that would be excluded from the computation of diluted loss per share, were 2.0 million and 1.6 million at June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted net income (loss) per share for the periods indicated (in thousands, except per share amounts):


    Three Months Ended
June 30,
    Six Months Ended
June 30,
    2012     2011     2012     2011  

Net income (loss) from continuing operations

  $ (4,066   $ (914   $ (4,553   $ 9,114  

Net income from discontinued operations

    1,799       —         3,670       4  













Net income (loss)

    (2,267     (914     (883     9,118  













Shares used to compute basic and diluted income per share

    19,749,266       19,650,260       19,728,852       19,623,249  

Dilutive potential common shares:


Restricted stock

    —         —         —         14,734  

Shares used to compute diluted income (loss) per share

    19,749,266       19,650,260       19,728,852       19,637,983  













Basic and diluted per share amounts:


Income (loss) from continuing operations

  $ (0.20   $ (0.05   $ (0.23   $ 0.46  

Income from discontinued operations

    0.09       —         0.19       —    













Net income (loss)

  $ (0.11   $ (0.05   $ (0.04   $ 0.46  













Revenue Recognition

Royalties on sales of products commercialized by the Company’s partners are recognized in the quarter reported by the respective partner.


Material sales revenue is recognized upon transfer of title, which normally passes to the buyer upon shipment to the customer. The Company’s credit and exchange policy includes provisions for the return of product between 30 to 90 days, depending on the specific terms of the individual agreement, when that product (1) does not meet specifications, (2) is damaged in shipment (in limited circumstances where title does not transfer until delivery), or (3) is exchanged for an alternative grade of Captisol.

Revenue from research funding under the Company’s collaboration agreements is earned and recognized on a percentage-of-completion basis as research hours are incurred in accordance with the provisions of each agreement.

Nonrefundable, up-front license fees and milestone payments with standalone value that are not dependent on any future performance by the Company under the Company’s collaboration agreements are recognized as revenue upon the earlier of when payments are received or collection is assured, but are deferred if the Company has continuing performance obligations. If the Company is unable to determine the stand alone value under multiple-element arrangements, revenue is recognized over the period of services or performance. Amounts received under multiple-element arrangements requiring ongoing services or performance by the Company are recognized over the period of such services or performance.

Revenue from milestones are recognized when earned, as evidenced by written acknowledgement from the collaborator, provided that (i) the milestone event is substantive, its achievability was not reasonably assured at the inception of the agreement, and the Company has no further performance obligations relating to that event, and (ii) collectability is reasonably assured. If these criteria are not met, the milestone payment is recognized over the remaining period of the Company’s performance obligations under the arrangement.

Income Taxes

The Company recognizes liabilities or assets for the deferred tax consequences of temporary differences between the tax bases of assets or liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements. These temporary differences will result in taxable or deductible amounts in future years when the reported amounts of the assets or liabilities are recovered or settled. A valuation allowance is established when management determines that it is more likely than not that all or a portion of a deferred tax asset will not be realized. Management evaluates the realizability of its net deferred tax assets on a quarterly basis and valuation allowances are provided, as necessary. During this evaluation, management reviews its forecasts of income in conjunction with other positive and negative evidence surrounding the realizability of its deferred tax assets to determine if a valuation allowance is required. Adjustments to the valuation allowance will increase or decrease the Company’s income tax provision or benefit. Management also applies the relevant guidance to determine the amount of income tax expense or benefit to be allocated among continuing operations, discontinued operations, and items charged or credited directly to stockholders’ equity

A tax position must meet a minimum probability threshold before a financial statement benefit is recognized. The minimum threshold is a tax position that is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by the applicable taxing authority, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in income tax expense.


Accounting for Share-Based Compensation

Share-based compensation expense for awards to employees and non-employee directors is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period until the last tranche vests. Compensation cost for consultant awards is recognized over each separate tranche’s vesting period. The following table summarizes share-based compensation expense recorded as components of research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses for the periods indicated (in thousands):


    Three Months Ended June 30,     Six Months Ended June 30,  
        2012             2011             2012             2011      

Share-based compensation expense as a component of:


Research and Development expenses

  $ 523     $ 405     $ 948     $ 512  

General and administrative expenses

    871       816       1,155       1,178  












    $ 1,394     $ 1,221     $ 2,103     $ 1,690  













The fair-value for options that were awarded to employees and directors was estimated at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option valuation model with the following weighted-average assumptions:


    Three Months Ended
June 30,
  Six Months Ended
June  30,
        2012           2011           2012           2011    

Risk-free interest rate

  0.9%   2.4%   1.0%   2.5%

Dividend yield

  —     —     —     —  

Expected volatility

  69%   68%   69%   69%

Expected term

  6.3 years   6.1 years   6.3 years   6.1 years

Forfeiture rate

  8.0%   9.4%   8.0%-11.2%   9.4%-14.1%

The expected term of the employee and non-employee director options is the estimated weighted-average period until exercise or cancellation of vested options (forfeited unvested options are not considered) based on historical experience. The expected term for consultant awards is the remaining period to contractual expiration.

Volatility is a measure of the expected amount of variability in the stock price over the expected life of an option expressed as a standard deviation. In selecting this assumption, management used the historical volatility of the Company's stock price over a period approximating the expected term.

Cash, Cash Equivalents and Short-term Investments

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and highly liquid securities with maturities at the date of acquisition of three months or less. Non-restricted equity and debt securities with a maturity of more than three months are considered short term investments. Restricted cash and investments consist of certificates of deposit held with financial institutions as collateral under a facility lease and third-party service provider arrangement. The following table summarizes the various investment categories at June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011 (in thousands):


    Cost     Gross unrealized
    Gross unrealized
fair value

June 30, 2012


Certificates of deposit

  $ 1,500     $ —       $ —       $ 1,500  

Certificates of deposit - restricted

    1,341       —         —         1,341  












    $ 2,841     $ —       $ —       $ 2,841  













December 31, 2011


Certificates of deposit

    10,000       —         —         10,000  

Certificates of deposit - restricted

    1,341       —         —         1,341  












    $ 11,341     $ —       $ —       $ 11,341  














Concentrations of Credit Risk

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash equivalents and investments and accounts receivable.

The Company invests its excess cash principally in United States government debt securities, investment grade corporate debt securities and certificates of deposit. The Company has established guidelines relative to diversification and maturities that maintain safety and liquidity. These guidelines are periodically reviewed and modified to take advantage of trends in yields and interest rates. Except as described above, the Company has not experienced any significant losses on its cash equivalents, short-term investments or restricted investments.

As of June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, cash deposits held at financial institutions in excess of FDIC insured amounts of $250,000 were approximately $9.9 million and $13.1 million, respectively.

Accounts receivable from one customer was 37% and 67% of total accounts receivable at June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively.

The Company obtains Captisol from a sole-source supplier. If this supplier was not able to supply the requested amounts of Captisol, the Company would be unable to continue to derive revenues from the sale of Captisol until it obtained an alternative source, which might take a considerable length of time.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts based on the best estimate of the amount of probable losses in the Company’s existing accounts receivable. Accounts receivable that are outstanding longer than their contractual payment terms, ranging from 30 to 90 days, are considered past due. When determining the allowance for doubtful accounts, several factors are taken into consideration, including historical write-off experience and review of specific customer accounts for collectability. Account balances are charged off against the allowance after collection efforts have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. There was no allowance for doubtful accounts included in the balance sheets at June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011.


Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market. The Company determines cost using the first-in, first-out method. The Company analyzes its inventory levels periodically and writes down inventory to its net realizable value if it has become obsolete, has a cost basis in excess of its expected net realizable value or is in excess of expected requirements.

Other Current Assets

Other current assets consist of the following (in thousands):


    June 30,
    December 31,

Prepaid expenses

  $ 848     $ 905  

Advanced manufacturing payments

    56       312  

Other receivables

    1,121       127  






    $ 2,025     $ 1,344  








Property and Equipment

Property and equipment is stated at cost and consists of the following (in thousands):


    June 30,
    December 31,

Lab and office equipment

  $ 4,392     $ 4,110  

Leasehold improvements

    —         62  

Computer equipment and software

    1,134       1,054  






      5,526       5,226  

Less accumulated depreciation and amortization

    (4,882     (4,771






    $ 644     $ 455  







Depreciation of equipment is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from three to ten years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives or their related lease term, whichever is shorter.

Goodwill and Other Identifiable Intangible Assets

Goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets consist of the following (in thousands):


    June 30,
    December 31,

Acquired in-process research and development

  $ 13,036     $ 13,036  

Complete technology

    14,643       14,643  

Trade name

    2,537       2,537  

Customer relationships

    29,400       29,400  


    14,894       14,894  






      74,510       74,510  

Accumulated amortization

    (3,343     (2,179






    $ 71,167     $ 72,331  







Intangible assets related to IPR&D are considered to be indefinite-lived until the completion or abandonment of the associated research and development efforts. During the period the assets are considered to be indefinite-lived, they will not be amortized but will be tested for impairment on an annual basis and between annual tests if the Company becomes aware of any events occurring or changes in circumstances that would indicate a reduction in the fair value of the IPR&D projects below their respective carrying amounts. If and when development is complete, which generally occurs if and when regulatory approval to market a product is obtained, the associated assets would be deemed finite-lived and would then be amortized based on their respective estimated useful lives at that point in time. Amortization expense of $1.2 million and $1.3 million was recognized for the six months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Estimated amortization expense for the years ending December 31, 2012 through 2016 is $2.3 million per year.


Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Management reviews long-lived assets for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. Fair value for the Company’s long-lived assets is determined using the expected cash flows discounted at a rate commensurate with the risk involved. As of June 30, 2012, management does not believe there have been any events or circumstances indicating that the carrying amount of its long-lived assets may not be recoverable.

Accrued Liabilities

Accrued liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):


    June 30,
    December 31,


  $ 682     $ 1,806  

Professional fees

    576       355  


    2,970       2,893  






    $ 4,228     $ 5,054  







Other Long-Term Liabilities

Other long-term liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):


    June 30,
    December 31,


    388       388  






    $ 388     $ 388  







Sale of Royalty Rights

The Company previously sold to third parties the rights to future royalties of certain of its products. As part of the underlying royalty agreements, the partners have the right to offset a portion of any future royalty payments owed to the Company to the extent of previous milestone payments. Accordingly, the Company deferred a portion of the revenue associated with each tranche of royalty right sold, equal to the pro-rata share of the potential royalty offset. Such amounts associated with the offset rights against future royalty payments will be recognized as revenue upon receipt of future royalties from the respective partners. As of June 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, the Company had deferred $1.0 million and $1.2 million, respectively, of revenue related to the sale of royalty rights. As of June 30, 2012, $0.4 million is included in current portion of deferred revenue and $0.6 million is included in long-term portion of deferred revenue.

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In June 2011, the FASB issued ASU No. 2011-05, Comprehensive Income (Topic 220) - Presentation of Comprehensive Income. This ASU amends Topic 220, Comprehensive Income, to allow an entity the option to present the total of comprehensive income, the components of net income, and the components of other comprehensive income either in a single continuous statement of comprehensive income or in two separate but consecutive statements. In both choices, an entity is required to present each component of net income along with total net income, each component of other comprehensive income along with a total for other comprehensive income, and a total amount for comprehensive income. ASU No. 2011-05 eliminates the option to present the components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of changes in shareholders’ investment. The amendments to the Codification in the ASU do not change the items that must be reported in other comprehensive income or when an item of other comprehensive income must be reclassified to net income. The ASU was effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2011 for the Company. In 2012, the Company has elected to present comprehensive income in a separate statement.


In September 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-08, Intangibles – Goodwill and other: testing for goodwill impairment, which, among other things, amends Accounting Standards Topic 350 Intangibles – Goodwill and Other, to allow entities to use a qualitative approach to test goodwill for impairment. ASU 2011-08 permits an entity to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If it is concluded that this is the case, it is necessary to perform the currently prescribed two-step goodwill impairment test. Otherwise, the two-step goodwill impairment test is not required. Our adoption of this standard had no impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In December 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-12, Deferral of the Effective Date for Amendments to the Presentation of Reclassifications of Items Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income in ASU 2011-12. The amendments in ASU 2011-12 defer the changes in ASU 2011-05 that relate to the presentation of reclassification adjustments out of accumulated other comprehensive income. The amendments in this ASU are effective for public entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2011. See above for the provisions of ASU 2011-05.