Basis of Presentation
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2014
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation||
Basis of Presentation
Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, a Delaware corporation (the "Company" or "Ligand") is a biopharmaceutical company that develops and acquires royalty and other revenue generating assets and couples them with a lean corporate cost structure. The Company diversifies its portfolio of assets across numerous technology types, therapeutic areas, drug targets, and industry partners. The Company added Captisol® to its technology portfolio in January 2011. Captisol is a formulation technology that has enabled six FDA approved products, including Onyx's Kyprolis® and Baxter International's Nexterone®, and is currently being developed in a number of clinical-stage partner programs. The Company's therapies address the unmet medical needs of patients for a broad spectrum of diseases including hepatitis, multiple myeloma, muscle wasting, Alzheimer’s disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes, anemia, asthma, Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis ("FSGS") and osteoporosis. Ligand has established multiple alliances with the world’s leading pharmaceutical companies including GlaxoSmithKline, Onyx Pharmaceuticals (a subsidiary of Amgen, Inc.), Merck, Pfizer, Baxter International, Lundbeck Inc. and Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The Company’s principal market is the United States. The Company sold its Oncology Product Line ("Oncology") and Avinza Product Line ("Avinza") on October 25, 2006 and February 26, 2007, respectively. The operating results for Oncology and Avinza have been presented in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements as "Discontinued Operations."
The Company has incurred significant losses since its inception. As of September 30, 2014, the Company’s accumulated deficit was approximately $666.4 million and the Company had working capital of approximately $180.1 million. Management believes that cash flows from operations will increase due to Captisol® sales, an increase in royalty revenues driven primarily from continued increases in Promacta® and Kyprolis® sales, and also from anticipated new license and milestone revenues. The Company expects to build cash in future months as it continues to generate significant cash flows from operations. The Company’s future operating and capital requirements will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to: the pace of scientific progress in its research and development programs; the potential success of these programs; the scope and results of preclinical testing and clinical trials; the time and costs involved in obtaining regulatory approvals; the costs involved in preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining and enforcing patent claims; competing technological and market developments; the amount of royalties on sales of the commercial products of its partners; the efforts of its collaborative partners; obligations under its operating lease agreements; and the capital requirements of any companies the Company may acquire in the future. The ability of the Company to achieve its operational targets is dependent upon the Company’s ability to further implement its business goals and generate sufficient operating cash flow.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include Ligand and its wholly owned subsidiaries, Ligand JVR, Allergan Ligand Retinoid Therapeutics, Seragen, Inc., Pharmacopeia, Inc. ("Pharmacopeia"), Neurogen Corporation ("Neurogen"), CyDex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ("CyDex"), Metabasis Therapeutics, Inc. ("Metabasis") and Nexus VI, Inc. Also included is Viking Therapeutics, Inc. ("Viking"), a variable interest entity ("VIE") for which the Company is deemed under applicable accounting guidance to be the primary beneficiary. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Basis of Presentation
The Company’s accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements as of September 30, 2014 and for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for annual financial statements. The Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2013 has been derived from the audited financial statements at that date, but does not include all of the information and footnotes required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for a fair presentation of the financial position and results of operations of the Company and its subsidiaries, have been included. Operating results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2014. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes therein included in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2013.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, expenses, contingent assets and liabilities, definite and indefinite lived intangible assets, goodwill, co-promote termination payments receivable and co-promote termination liabilities, uncertain tax positions, deferred revenue, lease exit liability and income tax net operating loss carryforwards during the reporting period. The Company’s critical accounting policies are those that are both most important to the Company’s financial condition and results of operations and require the most difficult, subjective or complex judgments on the part of management in their application, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Because of the uncertainty of factors surrounding the estimates or judgments used in the preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements, actual results may materially vary from these estimates.
Income Per Share
Basic income per share is calculated by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares and vested restricted stock units outstanding. Diluted income per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares and vested restricted stock units outstanding and the weighted-average number of dilutive common stock equivalents, including stock options, non-vested restricted stock units, convertible notes and warrants. Common stock equivalents are only included in the diluted income per share calculation when their effect is dilutive. The total number of potential common shares excluded from the computation of diluted income per share because their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive was 5.0 million and 0.9 million, as of September 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted net income per share for the periods indicated (in thousands, except per share amounts):
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Short-term Investments
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and highly liquid securities with maturities at the date of acquisition of three months or less. Securities received by the Company as a result of a milestone payment from licensees are considered short-term investments and have been classified by management as available-for-sale. Such investments are carried at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses included in the statement of comprehensive income (loss). The Company determines the cost of investments based on the specific identification method.
Restricted Cash and Investments
Restricted cash and investments consist of certificates of deposit held with a financial institution as collateral under a facility lease and third-party service provider arrangements.
The following table summarizes the various investment categories at September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013 (in thousands):
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash equivalents, investments and accounts receivable.
The Company invests its excess cash principally in U.S. government debt securities, investment-grade corporate debt securities and certificates of deposit. The Company has established guidelines relative to diversification and maturities that maintain safety and liquidity. These guidelines are periodically reviewed and modified to take advantage of trends in yields and interest rates. The Company did not experience any significant losses on its cash equivalents, short-term investments or restricted investments for the periods ending September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013.
As of September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, cash deposits held at financial institutions in excess of FDIC insured amounts of $250,000 were approximately $92.8 million and $11.1 million, respectively.
Accounts receivable from one customer was 57% of total accounts receivable at September 30, 2014. Accounts receivable from two customers was 75% of total accounts receivable at December 31, 2013.
The Company currently obtains Captisol from a single supplier. If this supplier were not able to supply the requested amounts of Captisol and the Company's existing inventory was depleted, the Company would be unable to continue to derive revenues from the sale of Captisol until it obtained an alternative source, which might take a considerable length of time. The Company maintains inventory of Captisol, which has a five year shelf life, at three geographically spread storage locations in the United States and Europe. If a disaster were to strike any of these locations, it could lead to supply interruptions.
Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market value. The Company determines cost using the first-in, first-out method. The Company analyzes its inventory levels periodically and writes down inventory to its net realizable value if it has become obsolete, has a cost basis in excess of its expected net realizable value or is in excess of expected requirements. There were no write downs related to obsolete inventory recorded for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is stated at cost and consists of the following (in thousands):
Depreciation of equipment is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from three to ten years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives or their related lease term, whichever is shorter. Depreciation expense recognized for the three months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 was $0.1 million. Depreciation expense for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 was $0.2 million. Depreciation expense is included in operating expenses.
Other Current Assets
Other current assets consist of the following (in thousands):
Goodwill and Other Identifiable Intangible Assets
Goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets consist of the following (in thousands):
The Company accounts for goodwill and other intangible assets in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 350 - Intangibles - Goodwill and Other which, among other things, establishes standards for goodwill acquired in a business combination, eliminates the amortization of goodwill and requires the carrying value of goodwill and certain non-amortizing intangibles to be evaluated for impairment on an annual basis. The Company uses the income approach and the market approach, each weighted at 50%, when performing its goodwill impairment analysis. For the income approach, the Company considers the present value of future cash flows and the carrying value of its assets and liabilities, including goodwill. The market approach is based on an analysis of revenue multiples of peer public companies. If the carrying value of the assets and liabilities, including goodwill, were to exceed the Company’s estimation of the fair value, the Company would record an impairment charge in an amount equal to the excess of the carrying value of goodwill over the implied fair value of the goodwill. The Company performs an evaluation of goodwill and other intangibles as of December 31 of each year, absent any indicators of earlier impairment, to ensure that impairment charges, if applicable, are reflected in the Company's financial results before December 31 of each year. When it is determined that impairment has occurred, a charge to operations is recorded. Goodwill and other intangible asset balances are included in the identifiable assets of the business segment to which they have been assigned. Any goodwill impairment, as well as the amortization of other purchased intangible assets, is charged against the respective business segments' operating income.
Amortization of definite-lived intangible assets is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the asset of 20 years. Amortization expense of $0.6 million and $1.8 million was recognized for each of the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Estimated amortization expense for the years ending December 31, 2014 through 2018 is $2.4 million per year.
Acquired In-Process Research and Development
Intangible assets related to acquired in-process research and development ("IPR&D") are considered to be indefinite-lived until the completion or abandonment of the associated research and development efforts. During the period the assets are considered to be indefinite-lived, they will not be amortized but will be tested for impairment on an annual basis and between annual tests if the Company becomes aware of any events occurring or changes in circumstances that would indicate a reduction in the fair value of the IPR&D projects below their respective carrying amounts. If and when development is complete, which generally occurs if and when regulatory approval to market a product is obtained, the associated assets would be deemed definite-lived and would then be amortized based on their respective estimated useful lives at that point in time. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 and the three months ended September 30, 2013 there was no impairment of IPR&D. For the nine months ended September 30, 2013, the Company recorded a non-cash impairment charge of $0.5 million for the write-off of IPR&D for Captisol-enabled Clopidogrel (MDCO-157). The asset was impaired upon notification from the Medicines Company that they intended to terminate the license agreement and return the rights of the compound to the Company. MDCO-157 is an intravenous option of the anti-platelet medication designed for situations where the administration of oral platelet inhibitors is not feasible or desirable.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
Management reviews long-lived assets for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. Fair value for the Company’s long-lived assets is determined using the expected cash flows discounted at a rate commensurate with the risk involved. As of September 30, 2014, management does not believe there have been any events or circumstances indicating that the carrying amount of its long-lived assets may not be recoverable.
Commercial license rights
Commercial license rights represent a portfolio of future milestone and royalty payment rights acquired in accordance with the Royalty Stream and Milestone Payments Purchase Agreement entered into with Selexis SA ("Selexis") in April 2013. The portfolio consists of over 15 Selexis commercial license agreement programs with various pharmaceutical-company counterparties. The purchase price was $4.6 million, inclusive of acquisition costs. The Company paid $3.6 million upon closing and paid an additional $1.0 million in April 2014. Individual commercial license rights acquired under the agreement are carried at allocated cost and approximate fair value. The carrying value of the license rights will be reduced on a pro-rata basis as revenue is realized over the term of the agreement. Declines in the fair value of individual license rights below their carrying value that are deemed to be other than temporary are reflected in earnings in the period such determination is made. As of September 30, 2014, management does not believe there have been any events or circumstances indicating that the carrying amount of its commercial license rights may not be recoverable.
Accrued liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
Other Long-Term Liabilities
Other long-term liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
In connection with the Company’s acquisition of CyDex in January 2011, the Company recorded a $17.6 million contingent liability, inclusive of the $4.3 million payment made in January 2012, for amounts potentially due to holders of the CyDex contingent value rights ("CVRs") and former license holders. The liability is periodically assessed based on events and circumstances related to the underlying milestones, royalties and material sales. Any change in fair value is recorded in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. The carrying amount of the liability may fluctuate significantly and actual amounts paid under the CVR agreements may be materially different than the carrying amount of the liability. The fair value of the liability at September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013 was $12.9 million and $9.3 million, respectively. The Company recorded a fair-value adjustment to increase the liability for CyDex-related contingent liabilities by $2.8 million and $5.6 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014, respectively, and an adjustment to increase the liability by $1.2 million and to decrease the liability by $2.1 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2013, respectively. There was a revenue-sharing payment of $1.6 million made during the nine months ended September 30, 2014, and no revenue sharing payments were made during the three months ended September 30, 2014 and three and nine months ended September 30, 2013. Other contingency payments related to the CyDex acquisition of $0.3 million were made during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 and other contingency payments of $0.1 million were made during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2013.
In connection with the Company’s acquisition of Metabasis in January 2010, the Company issued to Metabasis stockholders four tradable CVRs, one CVR from each of four respective series of CVR, for each Metabasis share. The CVRs will entitle Metabasis stockholders to cash payments as frequently as every six months as cash is received by the Company from proceeds from the sale or partnering of any of the Metabasis drug development programs, among other triggering events. The fair values of the CVRs are remeasured at each reporting date through the term of the related agreement. Changes in the fair values are reported in the statement of operations as income (decreases) or expense (increases). The carrying amount of the liability may fluctuate significantly based upon quoted market prices and actual amounts paid under the agreements may be materially different than the carrying amount of the liability. The fair value of the liability was estimated to be $3.5 million and $4.2 million as of September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013, respectively. The Company recorded a decrease in the liability for Metabasis-related CVRs of $1.2 million and an increase in the liability of $0.7 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014, respectively. The Company recorded a decrease in the liability of $0.7 million for the three months ended September 30, 2013 and an increase in the liability of $1.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2013.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair value is defined as the exit price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability. Fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined using assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. The Company establishes a three-level hierarchy to prioritize the inputs used in measuring fair value. The levels are described in the below with level 1 having the highest priority and level 3 having the lowest:
Level 1 - Quoted prices in active markets;
Level 2 - Inputs other than the quoted prices in active markets that are observable either directly or indirectly; and
Level 3 - Unobservable inputs in which there is little or no market data, which require the Company to develop its own assumptions.
The Company’s short-term investments include investments in equity securities which the Company received as a result of event-based and upfront payments from licensees. Additionally, there is a liability related to the investment in equity securities for amounts owed to former license holders. The Metabasis CVR liability is marked-to-market at each reporting period based upon the quoted market prices of the underlying CVR. The fair value of the CyDex contingent liabilities are determined at each reporting period based upon an income valuation model. The co-promote termination payments receivable represents a non-interest-bearing receivable for future payments to be made by Pfizer related to Avinza product sales and is recorded at its fair value. The receivable and liability will remain equal, and are adjusted each quarter for changes in the fair value of the obligation including any changes in the estimate of future net Avinza product sales.
The Company evaluates its financial instruments at each reporting period to determine if any transfers between the various three-level hierarchy have occurred and appropriately reclassifies its financial instruments to the appropriate level within the hierarchy.
Royalties on sales of products commercialized by the Company’s partners are recognized in the quarter reported by the respective partner. Generally, the Company receives royalty reports from its licensees approximately one quarter in arrears due to the fact that its agreements require partners to report product sales between 30 and 60 days after the end of the quarter. The Company recognizes royalty revenues when it can reliably estimate such amounts and collectability is reasonably assured. Under this accounting policy, the royalty revenues reported are not based upon estimates and such royalty revenues are typically reported to the Company by its partners in the same period in which payment is received.
Revenue from material sales of Captisol is recognized upon transfer of title, which normally passes upon shipment to the customer. The Company’s credit and exchange policy includes provisions for the return of product between 30 to 90 days, depending on the specific terms of the individual agreement, when that product (1) does not meet specifications, (2) is damaged in shipment (in limited circumstances where title does not transfer until delivery), or (3) is exchanged for an alternative grade of Captisol.
Revenue from research funding under our collaboration agreements is earned and recognized on a percentage-of completion basis as research hours are incurred in accordance with the provisions of each agreement.
Nonrefundable, upfront license fees are recognized as revenue upon delivery of the license, if the license is determined to have standalone value that is not dependent on any future performance by the Company under the applicable collaboration agreement. Nonrefundable contingent event-based payments are recognized as revenue when the contingent event is met, which is usually the earlier of when payments are received or collections are assured, provided that it does not require future performance by the Company. The Company occasionally has sub-license obligations related to arrangements for which it receives license fees, milestones and royalties. The Company evaluates the determination of gross versus net reporting based on each individual agreement.
Sales-based contingent payments from partners are accounted for similarly to royalties, with revenue recognized upon achievement of the sales targets assuming all other revenue recognition criteria for milestones are met. Revenue from development and regulatory milestones is recognized when earned, as evidenced by written acknowledgement from the collaborator, provided that (1) the milestone event is substantive, its achievability was not reasonably assured at the inception of the agreement, and the Company has no further performance obligations relating to that event, and (2) collectability is reasonably assured. If these criteria are not met, the milestone payment is recognized over the remaining period of the Company’s performance obligations under the arrangement.
The Company analyzes its revenue arrangements and other agreements to determine whether there are multiple elements that should be separated and accounted for individually or as a single unit of accounting. For multiple element contracts, arrangement consideration is allocated at the inception of the arrangement to all deliverables on the basis of relative selling price, using a hierarchy to determine selling price. Management first considers vendor-specific objective evidence ("VSOE"), then third-party evidence ("TPE") and if neither VSOE nor TPE exist, the Company uses its best estimate of selling price.
Many of the Company's revenue arrangements involve the bundling of a license with the option to purchase manufactured product. Licenses are granted to pharmaceutical companies for the use of Captisol in the development of pharmaceutical compounds. The licenses may be granted for the use of the Captisol product for all phases of clinical trials and through commercial availability of the host drug or may be limited to certain phases of the clinical trial process. Management believes that the Company's licenses have stand-alone value at the outset of an arrangement because the customer obtains the right to use Captisol in its formulations without any additional input by the Company.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts based on the best estimate of the amount of probable losses in the Company’s existing accounts receivable. Accounts receivable that are outstanding longer than their contractual payment terms, ranging from 30 to 90 days, are considered past due. When determining the allowance for doubtful accounts, several factors are taken into consideration, including historical write-off experience and review of specific customer accounts for collectability. Account balances are charged off against the allowance after collection efforts have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. There was no allowance for doubtful accounts included in the balance sheets at September 30, 2014 and December 31, 2013.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
Stock-based compensation expense for awards to employees and non-employee directors is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period until the last tranche vests. Compensation cost for consultant awards is recognized over each separate tranche’s vesting period. The following table summarizes stock-based compensation expense recorded as components of research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses for the periods indicated (in thousands):
The fair-value for options that were awarded to employees and directors was estimated at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option valuation model with the following weighted-average assumptions:
The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve at the time of the grant. The expected term of the employee and non-employee director options is the estimated weighted-average period until exercise or cancellation of vested options (forfeited unvested options are not considered) based on historical experience. The expected term for consultant awards is the remaining period to contractual expiration. Volatility is a measure of the expected amount of variability in the stock price over the expected life of an option expressed as a standard deviation. In making this assumption, the Company used the historical volatility of the Company’s stock price over a period equal to the expected term. The forfeiture rate is based on historical data at the time of the grant.
Preclinical Study and Clinical Trial Accruals
Substantial portions of the Company’s preclinical studies and all of the Company's clinical trials have been performed by third-party laboratories, contract research organizations, or other vendors (collectively "CROs"). Some CROs bill monthly for services performed, while others bill based upon milestone achievement. The Company accrues for each of the agreements it has with CROs on a monthly basis. For preclinical studies, accruals are estimated based upon the percentage of work completed and the contract milestones achieved. For clinical studies, accruals are estimated based upon a percentage of work completed, the number of patients enrolled and the duration of the study. The Company monitors patient enrollment, the progress of clinical studies and related activities to the extent possible through internal reviews of data reported to it by the CROs, correspondence with the CROs and clinical site visits. The Company's estimates are dependent upon the timelines and accuracy of the data provided by its CROs regarding the status of each program and total program spending. The Company periodically evaluates its estimates to determine if adjustments are necessary or appropriate based on information it receives concerning changing circumstances, and conditions or events that may affect such estimates. No material adjustments to preclinical study and clinical trial accrued expenses have been recognized to date.
Sale of Royalty Rights
The Company previously sold to third parties the rights to future royalties of certain of its products. As part of the underlying royalty agreements, the partners have the right to offset a portion of any future royalty payments owed to the Company to the extent of previous milestone payments. Accordingly, the Company deferred a portion of the revenue associated with each tranche of royalty right sold, equal to the pro-rata share of the potential royalty offset. Such amounts associated with the offset rights against future royalty payments will be recognized as revenue upon receipt of future royalties from the respective partners. As of September 30, 2014 there was no deferred revenue remaining related to the sale of royalty rights. As of December 31, 2013, the Company had deferred $0.1 million of revenue related to the sale of royalty rights.
In connection with the sale of the Avinza and Oncology product lines, the Company retained the obligation for returns of product that were shipped to wholesalers prior to the close of the transactions. The accruals for product returns, which were recorded as part of the accounting for the sales transactions, are based on historical experience. Any subsequent changes to the Company’s estimate of product returns are accounted for as a component of discontinued operations.
In May 2014, the Company entered into a licensing agreement and research collaboration with Omthera Pharmaceuticals. The research collaboration will target the development of novel products that utilize the proprietary Ligand-developed LTP TECHNOLOGY™ to improve lipid-lowering activity of certain omega-3 fatty acids. The Company is eligible to receive development, regulatory and event-based payments. The completion of a proof of concept under the development program would trigger a $1.0 million payment which would represent a milestone under the milestone method of accounting as (1) it is an event that can only be achieved in part on the Company's past performance, (2) there was substantive uncertainty at the date the arrangement was entered into that the event would be achieved and (3) it results in additional payment being due to the Company. None of the other event-based payments represents a milestone under the milestone method of accounting. No event based payment or milestone was achieved during the periods presented.
Cost of Goods Sold
The Company determines cost using the first-in, first-out method. Cost of goods sold include all costs of purchase and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition, including costs to store and distribute.
Research and Development
Collaborative research and development expense consists of labor, material, equipment and allocated facility costs of the Company’s scientific staff who are working pursuant to the Company’s collaborative agreements. From time to time, collaborative research and development expense includes costs related to research efforts in excess of those required under certain collaborative agreements. Management has the discretion to set the scope of such excess efforts and may increase or decrease the level of such efforts depending on the Company’s strategic priorities.
Proprietary research and development expense consists of intellectual property in-licensing costs, labor, materials, contracted services, and allocated facility costs that are incurred in connection with internally funded drug discovery and development programs.
Income taxes are accounted for under the liability method. This approach requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of differences between the tax basis of assets or liabilities and their carrying amounts in the consolidated financial statements. A valuation allowance is provided for deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that these items will either expire before the Company is able to realize their benefit or if future deductibility is uncertain. As of September 30, 2014, the Company had provided a full valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets as recoverability was uncertain. Developing the provision for income taxes requires significant judgment and expertise in federal and state income tax laws, regulations and strategies, including the determination of deferred tax assets and liabilities and, if necessary, any valuation allowances that may be required for deferred tax assets. The Company's judgments and tax strategies are subject to audit by various taxing authorities. While management believes the Company has provided adequately for its income tax liabilities in its consolidated financial statements, adverse determinations by these taxing authorities could have a material adverse effect on the Company's consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
The Company's ending deferred tax liability represents a future tax obligation for current tax amortization claimed on acquired IPR&D. As the Company cannot estimate when the IPR&D assets will be amortizable for financial reporting purposes, the deferred tax liability associated with the IPR&D assets cannot be used to support the realization of the Company's deferred tax assets. As a result, the Company is required to increase its valuation allowance and record a charge to deferred taxes.
Discontinued Operations-Oncology Product Line
In September 2006, the Company and Eisai Inc. and Eisai Co., Ltd. (collectively "Eisai"), entered into a purchase agreement (the "Oncology Purchase Agreement"), pursuant to which Eisai agreed to acquire all of the Company's worldwide rights in and to its oncology products, including, among other things, all related inventory, equipment, records and intellectual property, and to assume certain liabilities as set forth in the Oncology Purchase Agreement. The Oncology product line included the Company's four marketed oncology drugs: Ontak, Targretin capsules, Targretin gel and Panretin gel.
Discontinued Operations-Avinza Product Line
In September 2006, the Company and King Pharmaceuticals, now a subsidiary of Pfizer, entered into a purchase agreement (the "Avinza Purchase Agreement"), pursuant to which Pfizer acquired all of the rights in and to Avinza in the United States, its territories and Canada, including, among other things, all Avinza inventory, records and related intellectual property, and to assume certain liabilities as set forth in the Avinza Purchase Agreement.
Pursuant to the terms of the Avinza Purchase Agreement, the Company retained the liability for returns of product from wholesalers that had been sold by the Company prior to the close of the transaction. Accordingly, as part of the accounting for the gain on the sale of Avinza, the Company recorded a reserve for Avinza product returns.
During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 and the three months ended September 30, 2013 the Company did not recognize any gain or loss on the sale of the Avinza product line. The Company recognized a pre-tax gain of$2.6 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2013, due to subsequent changes in certain estimates and liabilities recorded as of the sale date.
Under ASC 280, Segment Reporting ("ASC 280"), operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate financial information is available that is regularly evaluated by the entity’s chief operating decision maker, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company has evaluated this codification and has identified two reportable segments: the development and commercialization of drugs using Captisol technology by CyDex and the biopharmaceutical company with a business model that is based upon the concept of developing or acquiring royalty revenue generating assets and coupling them with a lean corporate cost structure.
Comprehensive income represents net income adjusted for the change during the periods presented in unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities less reclassification adjustments for realized gains or losses included in net income. The unrealized gains or losses are reported on the consolidated statements of comprehensive income.
Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities
The Company identifies an entity as a VIE if either: (1) the entity does not have sufficient equity investment at risk to permit the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support, or (2) the entity's equity investors lack the essential characteristics of a controlling financial interest. The Company performs ongoing qualitative assessments of its VIEs to determine whether the Company has a controlling financial interest in any VIE and therefore is the primary beneficiary. If the Company is the primary beneficiary of a VIE, it must consolidate the VIE under applicable accounting guidance. The Company determined it holds a variable interest in Viking based on management's assessment that it does not have sufficient resources to carry out its principal activities without the support of the Company. The Company's variable interests in Viking are a loan provided by the Company to Viking and a license agreement executed concurrently. As of September 30, 2014, the Company's total assets include $2.9 million related to Viking and the Company's total liabilities include $4.5 million related to Viking. Viking's consolidated assets are owned by Viking, and Viking's consolidated liabilities are without recourse against Ligand.
New Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2013, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2013-02, Reporting of Amounts Reclassified Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. Under ASU 2013-02, an entity is required to provide information about the amounts reclassified out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income ("AOCI") by component. In addition, an entity is required to present, either on the face of the financial statements or in the notes, significant amounts reclassified out of AOCI by the respective line items of net income, but only if the amount reclassified is required to be reclassified in its entirety in the same reporting period. For amounts that are not required to be reclassified in their entirety to net income, an entity is required to cross-reference to other disclosures that provide additional details about those amounts. Implementing ASU 2013-02 did not change the current requirements for reporting net income or other comprehensive income in the financial statements. The amendments in this ASU are effective for the Company for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after January 1, 2014. The Company's adoption of this standard did not materially affect the consolidated financial statements.
In July 2013, FASB issued ASU 2013-11, Presentation of an Unrecognized Tax Benefit When a Net Operating Loss Carryforward, a Similar Tax Loss, or a Tax Credit Carryforward Exists. ASU 2013-11 requires the netting of unrecognized tax benefits ("UTBs") against a deferred tax asset for a loss or other carryforward that would apply in settlement of the uncertain tax positions. UTBs are required to be netted against all available same-jurisdiction loss or other tax carryforwards that would be utilized, rather than only against carryforwards that are created by the UTBs. ASU 2013-11 is effective for the Company for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2013. The Company's adoption of this standard did not materially affect the consolidated financial statements.
In April 2014, FASB issued ASU 2014-08, Reporting Discontinued Operations and Disclosures of Disposals of Components of an Entity. ASU 2014-08 raises the threshold for a disposal to qualify as a discontinued operation and modifies the related disclosure requirements. Under the new guidance, only disposals resulting in a strategic shift that will have a major effect on an entity's operations and financial results will be reported as discontinued operations. ASU 2014-08 also removes the requirement that an entity not have any significant continuing involvement in the operations of the component after disposal to qualify for reporting of the disposal as a discontinued operation. The guidance is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2014, with early adoption permitted for any disposal transaction not previously reported. Management does not believe the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In May 2014, FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2014-09 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016 and interim periods within those annual periods. The revenue standard’s core principle is built on the contract between a vendor and a customer for the provision of goods and services. It attempts to depict the exchange of rights and obligations between the parties in the pattern of revenue recognition based on the consideration to which the vendor is entitled. To accomplish this objective, the standard requires five basic steps: (1) identify the contract with the customer, (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract, (3) determine the transaction price, (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract, (5) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. Management is currently evaluating the effect the adoption of this standard will have on the Company's financial statements.
In June 2014, FASB issued ASU 2014-12, Accounting for Share-Based Payments When the Terms of an Award Provide That a Performance Target Could Be Achieved after the Requisite Service Period. The amendments in this update require that a performance target that affects vesting and that could be achieved after the requisite service period be treated as a performance condition. A reporting entity should apply existing guidance in ASC 718, Compensation - Stock Compensation, as it relates to awards with performance conditions that affect vesting to account for such awards. The amendments in this update will be effective for the Company as of January 1, 2016. Earlier adoption is permitted. Entities may apply the amendments in this update either: (1) prospectively to all awards granted or modified after the effective date; or (2) retrospectively to all awards with performance targets that are outstanding as of the beginning of the earliest annual period presented in the financial statements and to all new or modified awards thereafter. If a retrospective transition is adopted, the cumulative effect of applying this update as of the beginning of the earliest annual period presented in the financial statements should be recognized as an adjustment to the opening retained earnings balance at that date. In addition, if a retrospective transition is adopted, an entity may use hindsight in measuring and recognizing the compensation cost. Management is currently assessing the impact of this update, and believes that its adoption on January 1, 2016 will not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In August 2014, FASB issued ASU 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements - Going Concern. The amendments in this update require management to assess an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern by incorporating and expanding upon certain principles that are currently in U.S. auditing standards. Specifically, the amendments (1) provide a definition of the term substantial doubt, (2) require an evaluation every reporting period, including interim periods, (3) provide principles for considering the mitigating effect of management’s plans, (4) require certain disclosures when substantial doubt is alleviated as a result of consideration of management’s plans, (5) require an express statement and other disclosures when substantial doubt is not alleviated, and (6) require an assessment for a period of one year after the date that the financial statements are issued (or available to be issued). The amendments in this update are effective for the Company as of January 1, 2017. Early application is permitted. Management is currently assessing the impact of this update on its future discussion of its liquidity position in the Management’s Discussion and Analysis.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef