Significant Accounting Policies
|6 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2016
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
Significant Accounting Principles
Ligand is a biopharmaceutical company with a business model that is based upon the concept of developing or acquiring royalty revenue generating assets and coupling them with a lean corporate cost structure. We operate in one business segment: development and licensing of biopharmaceutical assets.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include Ligand and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Basis of Presentation
The Company’s accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with GAAP for interim financial information. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for a fair presentation of the financial position and results of operations of the Company and its subsidiaries, have been included. Interim financial results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes therein included in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015 filed on November 14, 2016.
The Company has restated its financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2015 to correct errors relating to the Company's net operating loss (NOL) carryforward benefits in the United States which resulted in an overstatement of deferred tax assets (DTA) at December 31, 2015 and June 30, 2016. In connection with three acquisitions that were completed prior to February 2010, the Company recognized DTAs for a portion of the NOLs, which included capitalized research and development expenses, obtained from the acquired businesses. From the time of the acquisitions until September 2015, there was a valuation allowance against all of the Company’s NOLs, including those obtained from the entities acquired. In September 2015, the Company concluded that it was more likely than not that a substantial portion of its deferred tax assets would be realized through future taxable income. As a result, the Company released the majority of its DTA valuation allowance in full, including $27.5 million related to NOLs recognized as part of the businesses acquired prior to February of 2010.
During the quarter ended September 30, 2016, the Company concluded that for accounting purposes the approximately $27.5 million of DTAs that were obtained upon acquiring the businesses prior to February of 2010 did not meet the more likely-than-not criterion for recognition in 2015 and that the related valuation allowance should not have been reversed. As a result, the Company's income tax benefit and net income for the year ended December 31, 2015 were overstated by $27.5 million each as were the Company's DTAs at June 30, 2016.
Based on the materiality guidelines contained in SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 99, Materiality, and SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 108, Considering the Effects of Prior Year Misstatements in Current Year Financial Statements, the Company believes that the income tax adjustment is material to its financial statements for periods subsequent to and including the year ended December 31, 2015. Accordingly, the Company determined that it would restate prior period financial statements and amend its previously filed affected filings, including its June 30, 2016 report on Form 10-Q and December 31, 2015 report on 10-K.
The Company also recorded adjustments as part of this restatement related to the classification of our 2019 Convertible Senior Notes. As of December 31, 2015, the Company's last reported sale price exceeded the 130% threshold described in Note 6 - "Financing Arrangements" and accordingly the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes have been reclassified as a current liability as of December 31, 2015. As a result, the related unamortized discount of $39.6 million previously classified within stockholders' equity was reclassified as temporary equity component of currently redeemable convertible notes on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet.
We also corrected an immaterial error related to stock-based compensation in the amount of $0.4 million for the three and six month period ended June 30, 2016. As a result, research and development expenses for the three and six months ended is $4.9 million and $8.9 million, respectively. This correction decreased earnings per share by $0.02.
The effects of these prior period corrections are as follows:
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
Certain reclassifications have been made to the previously issued balance sheet and statement of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015 for comparability purposes. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported net income, stockholders' equity, and operating cash flows as previously reported.
Income (Loss) Per Share
Basic income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares and common stock equivalents of all dilutive securities calculated using the treasury stock method and the if-converted method. The total number of potentially dilutive securities including stock options and warrants excluded from the computation of diluted income per share because their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive was 5.3 million for the period ended June 30, 2015. In loss periods, basic net loss per share and diluted net loss per share are identical since the effect of otherwise dilutive potential common shares is anti-dilutive and therefore excluded.
The following table presents the computation of basic and diluted net income (loss) per share for the periods indicated (in thousands, except per share amounts) as restated for the impact of the $0.4 million adjustment to net income (loss) per share:
(2) The sum of net income per share amounts may not equal the totals due to rounding
Cash equivalents consist of all investments with maturities of three months or less from the date of acquisition.
Short-term investments primarily consist of investments in debt securities that have effective maturities greater than three months and less than twelve months from the date of acquisition. The Company classifies its short-term investments as "available-for-sale". Such investments are carried at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses included in the statement of comprehensive income (loss). The Company determines the cost of investments based on the specific identification method.
The following table summarizes the various investment categories at June 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015 (in thousands):
Inventory, which consists of finished goods, is stated at the lower of cost or market value. The Company determines cost using the first-in, first-out method. Inventory levels are analyzed periodically and written down to its net realizable value if it has become obsolete, has a cost basis in excess of its expected net realizable value or is in excess of expected requirements. There were no write downs related to obsolete inventory recorded for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015.
Goodwill and Other Identifiable Intangible Assets
Goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets consist of the following (in thousands):
As Discussed in Note 2-Business Combination, on January 8, 2016, the Company completed its acquisition of OMT. As a result of the transaction, the Company recorded $167.0 million of intangibles with definite lives and goodwill of $60.1 million. Amortization of definite-lived intangible assets is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the asset of 20 years. Amortization expense of $2.7 million and $5.2 million was recognized for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016, respectively. Amortization expense of $0.6 million and $1.2 million was recognized for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, respectively.
The Company tests the carrying value of goodwill in accordance with accounting rules on impairment of goodwill, which require that the Company estimate the fair value of the reporting unit annually, or when impairment indicators exist, and compare such amounts to their respective carrying values to determine if an impairment is required. The Company performed its annual assessment for goodwill impairment for the year ended December 31, 2015, noting no impairment.
Commercial License Rights
Commercial License Rights consist of the following (in thousands):
Commercial license rights represent a portfolio of future milestone and royalty payment rights acquired from Selexis in April 2013 and April 2015 and CorMatrix in May 2016. Individual commercial license rights acquired are carried at allocated cost and approximate fair value. The carrying value of the license rights will be reduced on a pro-rata basis as revenue is realized over the term of the agreement. Declines in the fair value of individual license rights below their carrying value that are deemed to be other than temporary are reflected in earnings in the period such determination is made. As of June 30, 2016, management does not believe there have been any events or circumstances indicating that the carrying amount of its commercial license rights may not be recoverable.
Relationships between the CorMatrix Parties
As previously disclosed in Ligand’s filings, Jason Aryeh is a director of both Ligand and CorMatrix. Mr. Aryeh beneficially owns equity of CorMatrix representing approximately .56% of CorMatrix’s outstanding equity. Mr. Aryeh recused himself from all of the board’s consideration of the Purchase Agreement, including any financial analysis, the terms of the Purchase Agreement and the vote to approve the Purchase Agreement and the related transactions.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is stated at cost and consists of the following (in thousands):
Depreciation of equipment is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which range from three to ten years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the estimated useful lives or the related lease term. Depreciation expense of $0.1 million was recognized for each of the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015, which is included in operating expenses.
Other Current Assets
Other current assets consist of the following (in thousands):
Accrued liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
Other Long-Term Liabilities
Other long-term liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
In connection with the Company’s acquisition of CyDex in January 2011, the Company recorded a contingent liability, for amounts potentially due to holders of the CyDex CVRs and former license holders. The liability is periodically assessed based on events and circumstances related to the underlying milestones, royalties and material sales. Any change in fair value is recorded in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations. The carrying amount of the liability may fluctuate significantly and actual amounts paid under the CVR agreements may be materially different than the carrying amount of the liability. The fair value of the liability at June 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015 was $7.0 million and $9.5 million, respectively. The Company recorded a fair-value adjustment to increase the liability by $0.2 million and $0.5 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016, respectively. The Company recorded a fair-value adjustment to increase the liability by $1.0 million and $2.2 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, respectively. The Company paid CyDex CVR holders $3.0 million and $3.2 million during the six months ended June 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
In connection with the Company’s acquisition of Metabasis in January 2010, the Company issued to Metabasis stockholders four tradable CVRs, one CVR from each of four respective series of CVR, for each Metabasis share. The CVRs will entitle Metabasis stockholders to potential cash payments as frequently as every six months as cash is received by the Company from proceeds from the sale or partnering of any of the Metabasis drug development programs, among other triggering events. The fair values of the CVRs are remeasured at each reporting date through the term of the related agreement. Any change in fair value is recorded in the Company’s consolidated statement of operations. The carrying amount of the liability may fluctuate significantly based upon quoted market prices and actual amounts paid under the agreements may be materially different than the carrying amount of the liability. The fair value of the liability was estimated to be $2.5 million and $4.0 million as of June 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015, respectively. The Company recorded an increase in the liability for Metabasis-related CVRs of $0.1 million and $1.2 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016. The Company recorded an increase of $6.4 million and $5.3 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2015, respectively. The Company paid Metabasis CVR holders $2.6 million for the six months ended June 30, 2016. No payments were made to Metabasis CVR holders for the six months ended June 30, 2015.
Royalties on sales of products commercialized by the Company’s partners are recognized in the quarter reported to Ligand by the respective partner. Generally, the Company receives royalty reports from its licensees approximately one quarter in arrears due to the fact that its agreements require partners to report product sales between 30 and 60 days after the end of the quarter. The Company recognizes royalty revenues when it can reliably estimate such amounts and collectability is reasonably assured. Under this accounting policy, the royalty revenues reported are not based upon estimates and such royalty revenues are typically reported to the Company by its partners in the same period in which payment is received.
Revenue from material sales of Captisol is recognized upon transfer of title, which normally passes upon shipment to the customer, provided all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. All product returns are subject to the Company's credit and exchange policy, approval by the Company and a 20% restocking fee. To date, product returns by customers have not been material to net material sales in any related period. The Company records revenue net of product returns, if any, and sales tax collected and remitted to government authorities during the period.
The Company analyzes its revenue arrangements and other agreements to determine whether there are multiple elements that should be separated and accounted for individually or as a single unit of accounting. For multiple element contracts, arrangement consideration is allocated at the inception of the arrangement to all deliverables on the basis of relative selling price, using a hierarchy to determine selling price. Management first considers VSOE, then TPE and if neither VSOE nor TPE exist, the Company uses its best estimate of selling price.
Many of the Company's revenue arrangements for Captisol involve a license agreement with the supply of manufactured Captisol product. Licenses may be granted to pharmaceutical companies for the use of Captisol product in the development of pharmaceutical compounds. The supply of the Captisol product may be for all phases of clinical trials and through commercial availability of the host drug or may be limited to certain phases of the clinical trial process. Management believes that the Company's licenses have stand-alone value at the outset of an arrangement because the customer obtains the right to use Captisol in its formulations without any additional input by the Company.
Other nonrefundable, upfront license fees are recognized as revenue upon delivery of the license, if the license is determined to have standalone value that is not dependent on any future performance by the Company under the applicable collaboration agreement. Nonrefundable contingent event-based payments are recognized as revenue when the contingent event is met, which is usually the earlier of when payments are received or collections are assured, provided that it does not require future performance by the Company. The Company occasionally has sub-license obligations related to arrangements for which it receives license fees, milestones and royalties. The Company evaluates the determination of gross versus net reporting based on each individual agreement.
Sales-based contingent payments from partners are accounted for similarly to royalties, with revenue recognized upon achievement of the sales targets assuming all other revenue recognition criteria for milestones are met. Revenue from development and regulatory milestones is recognized when earned, as evidenced by written acknowledgement from the collaborator, provided that (1) the milestone event is substantive, its achievability was not reasonably assured at the inception of the agreement, and the Company has no further performance obligations relating to that event, and (2) collectability is reasonably assured. If these criteria are not met, the milestone payment is recognized over the remaining period of the Company’s performance obligations under the arrangement.
Revenue from research funding under our collaboration agreements is earned and recognized on a percentage-of completion basis as research hours are incurred in accordance with the provisions of each agreement.
Stock-based compensation expense for awards to employees and non-employee directors is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period until the last tranche vests. The following table summarizes stock-based compensation expense recorded as components of research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses for the periods indicated (in thousands):
The fair-value for options that were awarded to employees and directors was estimated at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option valuation model with the following weighted-average assumptions:
Income taxes are accounted for under the liability method. This approach requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of differences between the tax basis of assets or liabilities and their carrying amounts in the consolidated financial statements. The Company provides a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets if it is more likely than not that these items will expire before it is able to realize their benefit. The Company calculates the valuation allowance in accordance with the authoritative guidance relating to income taxes under ASC 740, Income Taxes, which requires an assessment of both positive and negative evidence that is available regarding the reliability of these deferred tax assets, when measuring the need for a valuation allowance. Developing the provision for income taxes requires significant judgment and expertise in federal and state income tax laws, regulations and strategies, including the determination of deferred tax assets and liabilities and, if necessary, any valuation allowances that may be required for deferred tax assets. The Company's judgments and tax strategies are subject to audit by various taxing authorities. While management believes the Company has provided adequately for its income tax liabilities in its consolidated financial statements, adverse determinations by these taxing authorities could have a material adverse effect on the Company's consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
Variable Interest Entities
The Company identifies an entity as a VIE if either: (1) the entity does not have sufficient equity investment at risk to permit the entity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support, or (2) the entity's equity investors lack the essential characteristics of a controlling financial interest. The Company performs ongoing qualitative assessment of its VIEs to determine whether the Company has a controlling financial interest in any VIE and therefore is the primary beneficiary. If the Company is the primary beneficiary of a VIE, it consolidates the VIE under applicable accounting guidance. If the Company is no longer the primary of a VIE or the entity is no longer considered as a VIE as facts and circumstances change, it deconsolidates the entity under the applicable accounting guidance. In May 2015, the Company deconsolidated Viking, a previously reported VIE, and elected to record its investment in Viking under the equity method of accounting as Viking is no longer considered a VIE and the Company does not have voting control or other elements of control that would require consolidation. The investment is subsequently adjusted for the Company’s share of Viking's operating results and if applicable, cash contributions and distributions, which is reported on a separate line in our condensed consolidated statement of operations called “Loss from Viking Therapeutics”. On the condensed consolidated balance sheet, the Company reports its investment in Viking on a separate line in the non-current assets section called “Investment in Viking Therapeutics”. See Note 4, Investment in Viking Therapeutics, for additional details.
In August 2014, the Company completed a $245.0 million offering of 2019 Convertible Senior Notes, which bears interest at 0.75%. The Company accounts for the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes by separating the liability and equity components of the instrument in a manner that reflects the Company's nonconvertible debt borrowing rate. As a result, the Company assigned a value to the debt component of the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes equal to the estimated fair value of similar debt instruments without the conversion feature, which resulted in the Company recording the debt instrument at a discount. The Company is amortizing the debt discount over the life of the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes as additional non-cash interest expense utilizing the effective interest method.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in ASC 605, Revenue Recognition. The core principle of the guidance is that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The new guidance establishes a five-step model to achieve that core principle and also requires additional disclosures about the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts. ASU 2014-09 is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017. Early application is permitted after December 15, 2016.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-08, Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net), which clarifies the implementation guidance on principal versus agent considerations, and ASU 2016-10, Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing, which clarifies the identification of performance obligations and the licensing implementation guidance.
In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-12, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) - Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients, which clarifies guidance on assessing collectibility, presenting sales taxes and other similar taxes collected from customers, measuring noncash consideration, and certain transition matters. The Company is currently evaluating the effect the adoption of ASU 2014-09, ASU 2015-14, ASU 2016-08, ASU 2016-10, and ASU 2016-12 will have on the Company's financial statements.
In April 2015, FASB issued ASU 2015-03, Interest-Imputation of Interest: Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs. This update was issued to simplify the presentation for debt issuance costs. Upon adoption, such costs shall be presented on our consolidated balance sheets as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of the related debt liability and not as a deferred charge presented in Other assets on our consolidated balance sheets. This amendment will be effective for interim and annual periods beginning on January 1, 2016, and is required to be retrospectively adopted. Management adopted the change in the presentation on our consolidated balance sheets accordingly (see Note 6 for details).
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01 Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities that amends the accounting and disclosures of financial instruments, including a provision that requires equity investments (except for investments accounted for under the equity method of accounting) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in current earnings. The new standard is effective for interim and annual periods beginning on January 1, 2018. We are currently evaluating the impact that this new standard will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued a new accounting standard that amends the guidance for the accounting and disclosure of leases. This new standard requires that lessees recognize the assets and liabilities that arise from leases on the balance sheet and disclose qualitative and quantitative information about their leasing arrangements. The new standard is effective for interim and annual periods beginning on January 1, 2019. We are currently evaluating the impact that this new standard will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation, which identifies areas for simplification involving several aspects of accounting for stock-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, an option to recognize gross stock compensation expense with actual forfeitures recognized as they occur, as well as certain classifications on the statement of cash flows. ASU No. 2016-09 is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 31, 2016. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently assessing the potential impact that the adoption of ASU No. 2016-09 will have in our condensed consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments which requires that expected credit losses relating to financial assets measured on an amortized cost basis and available-for-sale debt securities be recorded through an allowance for credit losses. ASU 2016-13 limits the amount of credit losses to be recognized for available-for-sale debt securities to the amount by which carrying value exceeds fair value and also requires the reversal of previously recognized credit losses if fair value increases. The new standard will be effective for us on January 1, 2020. Early adoption will be available on January 1, 2019. We are currently evaluating the effect that the updated standard will have on our consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef