Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2017
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


Ligand is a biopharmaceutical company with a business model based on developing or acquiring assets which generate royalty, milestone or other passive revenue for the Company and using a lean corporate cost structure. We operate in one business segment: development and licensing of biopharmaceutical assets.

Principles of Consolidation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements include Ligand and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Basis of Presentation
The Company’s accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.


Certain reclassifications have been made to the previously issued statement of operations for comparability purposes. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported net income (loss), stockholders' equity and operating cash flows as previously reported.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from those estimates

Concentrations of Business Risk

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash equivalents and investments. The Company invests its excess cash principally in United States government debt securities, investment grade corporate debt securities and certificates of deposit. The Company has established guidelines relative to diversification and maturities that maintain safety and liquidity. These guidelines are periodically reviewed and modified to take advantage of trends in yields and interest rates.

A relatively small number of partners account for a significant percentage of our revenue. Revenue from significant partners, which is defined as 10% or more of our total revenue, was as follows:
December 31,
Partner A
Partner B
Partner C



The Company obtains Captisol from two sites at a single supplier, Hovione. If this supplier were not able to supply the requested amounts of Captisol from each site, and if our safety stocks of material were depleted, the Company would be unable to continue to derive revenues from the sale of Captisol until it obtained material from an alternative source, which could take a considerable length of time.

Cash Equivalents & Short Term Investments

Cash equivalents consist of all investments with maturities of  three months or less from the date of acquisition. Short-term investments primarily consist of investments in debt securities that have effective maturities greater than three months and less than twelve months from the date of acquisition. The Company classifies its short-term investments as "available-for-sale". Such investments are carried at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses included in the statement of comprehensive income (loss). The Company determines the cost of investments based on the specific identification method.
Accounts Receivable

Trade accounts receivable are recorded at the net invoice value and are not interest bearing. The Company considers receivables past due based on the contractual payment terms which range from 30 to 90 days. The Company reserves specific receivables if collectability is no longer reasonably assured. The Company re-evaluates such reserves on a regular basis and adjusts its reserves as needed. Once a receivable is deemed to be uncollectible, such balance is charged against the reserve.
Inventory, which consists of finished goods, is stated at the lower of cost or market value. The Company determines cost using the first-in, first-out method. The Company analyzes its inventory levels periodically and writes down inventory to its net realizable value if it has become obsolete, has a cost basis in excess of its expected net realizable value or is in excess of expected requirements. There were no write downs related to obsolete inventory recorded for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016.
Property and Equipment

Property and equipment are stated at cost, subject to review for impairment, and depreciated over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which generally range from three to ten years, using the straight-line method. Amortization of leasehold improvements is recorded over the shorter of the lease term or estimated useful life of the related asset. Maintenance and repairs are charged to operations as incurred. When assets are sold, or otherwise disposed of, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is included in operating expense.

Business Combinations

The acquisition method of accounting for business combinations requires us to use significant estimates and assumptions, including fair value estimates, as of the business combination date and to refine those estimates as necessary during the measurement period (defined as the period, not to exceed one year, in which we may adjust the provisional amounts recognized for a business combination).

Under the acquisition method of accounting we recognize separately from goodwill the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed, including contingent consideration and all contractual contingencies, generally at the acquisition date fair value. Contingent purchase consideration to be settled in cash are remeasured to estimated fair value at each reporting period with the change in fair value recorded in 'Increase in contingent liabilities'. Costs that we incur to complete the business combination such as investment banking, legal and other professional fees are not considered part of consideration and we charge them to general and administrative expense as they are incurred.

We measure goodwill as of the acquisition date as the excess of consideration transferred, which we also measure at fair value, over the net of the acquisition date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. In addition, IPR&D is capitalized and assessed for impairment annually. IPR&D is amortized upon product commercialization or upon out-licensing the underlying intellectual property where we no have active involvement in the licensee's development activities. IPR&D is amortized over the estimated life of the commercial product or licensing arrangement.

Should the initial accounting for a business combination be incomplete by the end of a reporting period that falls within the measurement period, we report provisional amounts in our financial statements. During the measurement period, we adjust the provisional amounts recognized at the acquisition date to reflect new information obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date that, if known, would have affected the measurement of the amounts recognized as of that date and we record those adjustments to our financial statements in the period of change, if any.

Under the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations, if we identify changes to acquired deferred tax asset valuation allowances or liabilities related to uncertain tax positions during the measurement period and they relate to new information obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date, those changes are considered a measurement period adjustment and we record the offset to goodwill. We record all other changes to deferred tax asset valuation allowances and liabilities related to uncertain tax positions in current period income tax expense.
Contingent Liabilities

In connection with the acquisition of Crystal in October 2017, we may be required to pay up to an additional $10.5 million in purchase consideration upon achievement of certain commercial and development milestones to the Crystal shareholders. See footnote 7, Balance Sheet Account Details.

In connection with the Company's acquisition of CyDex in January 2011, the Company recorded a contingent liability for amounts potentially due to holders of the CyDex CVRs and former license holders. See footnote 7, Other Balance Sheet Details. The liability is periodically assessed based on events and circumstances related to the underlying milestones, royalties and material sales. In connection with the Company’s acquisition of Metabasis in January 2010 January 2010, the Company issued Metabasis stockholders four tradable CVRs for each Metabasis share. The fair values of the CVRs are remeasured at each reporting date through the term of the related agreement.

Any change in fair value is recorded in the Company's consolidated statement of operations.

Goodwill, Intangible Assets and Other Long-Lived Assets

Goodwill, which has an indefinite useful life, represents the excess of cost over fair value of net assets acquired. The change in the carrying value of goodwill during the year ended December 31, 2017, was due to the acquisition of Crystal. Goodwill is reviewed for impairment at least annually during the fourth quarter, or more frequently if an event occurs indicating the potential for impairment. During the goodwill impairment review, we assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is less than the carrying amount, including goodwill. The qualitative factors include, but are not limited to, macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, and the overall financial performance. If, after assessing the totality of these qualitative factors, we determine that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is less than the carrying amount, then no additional assessment is deemed necessary. Otherwise, we proceed to perform the two-step test for goodwill impairment. The first step involves comparing the estimated fair value of the reporting unit with the carrying value, including goodwill. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds the fair value, the second step of the goodwill impairment test is performed to determine the amount of loss, which involves comparing the implied fair value of the goodwill to the carrying value of the goodwill. We may also elect to bypass the qualitative assessment in a period and elect to proceed to perform the first step of the goodwill impairment test. We performed the annual assessment for goodwill impairment in the fourth quarter of 2017, noting no impairment.

Our identifiable intangible assets are typically comprised of acquired core technologies, licensed technologies, customer relationships and trade names. The cost of identifiable intangible assets with finite lives is generally amortized on a straight-line basis over the assets’ respective estimated useful lives. We regularly perform reviews to determine if any event has occurred that may indicate that intangible assets with finite useful lives and other long-lived assets are potentially impaired. If indicators of impairment exist, an impairment test is performed to assess the recoverability of the affected assets by determining whether the carrying amount of such assets exceeds the undiscounted expected future cash flows. If the affected assets are not recoverable, we estimate the fair value of the assets and record an impairment loss if the carrying value of the assets exceeds the fair value. Factors that may indicate potential impairment include a significant decline in our stock price and market capitalization compared to the net book value, significant changes in the ability of a particular asset to generate positive cash flows, and the pattern of utilization of a particular asset.

Commercial license rights

Commercial license rights consist of the following (in thousands):
December 31,
December 31,
Aziyo & CorMatrix






Less: accumulated amortization
     Total commercial rights, net


Commercial license rights represent a portfolio of future milestone and royalty payment rights acquired from Selexis in April 2013 and April 2015 and CorMatrix in May 2016. Individual commercial license rights acquired are carried at allocated cost.

In May 2017, the Company entered into a Royalty Agreement with Aziyo pursuant to which the Company will receive royalties from certain marketed products that Aziyo acquired from CorMatrix. Pursuant to the Royalty Agreement, the Company received $10 million in 2017 from Aziyo to buydown the royalty rates on the products CorMatrix sold to Aziyo. The Royalty Agreement closed on May 31, 2017, in connection with the closing of the asset sale from CorMatrix to Aziyo (the “CorMatrix Asset Sale”). Pursuant to the Royalty Agreement, the Company will receive a 5% royalty on the products Aziyo acquired in the CorMatrix Asset Sale, reduced from the original 20% royalty from CorMatrix pursuant to the previously disclosed Interest Purchase Agreement, dated May 3, 2016 (the “Original Interest Purchase Agreement”) between CorMatrix and the Company. In addition, Aziyo has agreed to pay the Company up to $10 million of additional milestones tied to cumulative net sales of the products Aziyo acquired in the CorMatrix Asset Sale and to extend the term on these royalties by one year. The Royalty Agreement will terminate on May 31, 2027. In addition, in May 2017, the Company entered into an amended and restated interest purchase agreement (the “Amended Interest Purchase Agreement”) with CorMatrix, which supersedes in its entirety the Original Interest Purchase Agreement. Other than removing the commercial products sold to Aziyo in the CorMatrix Sale, the terms of the Amended Interest Purchase Agreement remain unchanged with respect to the CorMatrix developmental pipeline products, including the royalty rate of 5% on such pipeline products. The Amended Interest Purchase Agreement will terminate 10 years from the date of the first commercial sale of such products.

The Company accounts for the Aziyo commercial license right as a financial asset in accordance with ASC 310 and amortizes the commercial license right using the 'effective interest' method whereby the Company forecasts expected cash flows over the term of the arrangement to arrive at an annualized effective interest. The annual effective interest associated with the forecasted cash flows from the Royalty Agreement with Aziyo as of December 31, 2017 is 26%. Revenue is calculated by multiplying the carrying value of the commercial license right by the effective interest. The payments received in 2017 were accordingly allocated between revenue and the amortization of the commercial license rights.

We elected a prospective approach to account for changes in estimated cash flows and selected a method for determining when an impairment would be recognized and how to measure that impairment. In circumstances where our new estimate of expected cash flows is greater than previously expected, we will update our yield prospectively. While it has not occurred to date, in circumstances where our new estimate of expected cash flows is less than previously expected and below our original estimated yield we will record impairment. Impairment will be recognized by reducing the financial asset to an amount that represents the present value of our most recent estimate of expected cash flows discounted by the original effective interest rate.  In circumstances where our new estimate of expected cash flows is less than previously expected, but not below our original estimated yield, we will update our yield prospectively.

The Company accounts for commercial license rights related to developmental pipeline products on a non-accrual basis. These developmental pipeline products are non-commercialized, non-approved products that require FDA or other regulatory approval, and thus have uncertain cash flows. The developmental pipeline products are on a non-accrual basis as the Company is not yet able to forecast future cash flows given their pre-commercial stages of development. The Company will prospectively update its yield model under the effective interest method once the underlying products are commercialized and the Company can reliably forecast expected cash flows. Income will be calculated by multiplying the carrying value of the commercial license right by the effective interest rate.

In 2017, the Company identified and corrected an immaterial error related to 2016. The adjustment related to the recognition of the income associated with this financial asset. The Company determined the 'effective interest' method should have been used to recognize income associated with the financial asset and that the method utilized previously was incorrect. The error had the impact of understating Commercial License Rights, revenue and net income in 2016. Management evaluated the effect of the adjustment on previously issued consolidated financial statements in accordance with SAB No. 99 and SAB No. 108 and concluded that it was qualitatively and quantitatively immaterial to the historical periods. Management also concluded that correcting the error in 2017 did not have a material impact on the 2017 financial results. As a result, in accordance with SAB No. 108, we corrected our Consolidated Balance Sheets as of June 30, 2017. The error resulted in an understatement of 2016 revenue of $1.3 million and net income of $0.8 million, or $0.04 per diluted share and overstatement of 2017 revenue of $1.3 million and net income of $0.8 million, or $0.04 per diluted share.

Revenue Recognition

We recognize revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or service has been provided, title has transferred or access has been given, the price is fixed or determinable, there are no remaining customer acceptance requirements, and collectability of the resulting receivable is reasonably assured.

Royalties on sales of products commercialized by the Company’s partners are recognized in the quarter reported by the respective partner. Generally, the Company receives royalty reports from its licensees approximately one quarter in arrears due to the fact that its agreements require partners to report product sales between 30 and 60 days after the end of the quarter. The Company recognizes royalty revenues when it can reliably estimate such amounts and collectability is reasonably assured. Under this accounting policy, the royalty revenues reported are not based upon estimates and such royalty revenues are typically reported to the Company by its partners in the same period in which payment is received.
Revenue from material sales of Captisol is recognized upon transfer of title, which normally passes upon shipment to the customer, provided all other revenue recognition criteria have been met. All product returns are subject to the Company's credit and exchange policy, approval by the Company and a 20% restocking fee. To date, product returns have not been material to net material sales in any related period. The Company records revenue net of product returns, if any, and sales tax collected and remitted to government authorities during the period.

The Company analyzes its revenue arrangements and other agreements to determine whether there are multiple elements that should be separated and accounted for individually or as a single unit of accounting. For multiple element contracts, arrangement consideration is allocated at the inception of the arrangement to all deliverables on the basis of relative selling price, using a hierarchy to determine selling price. Management first considers VSOE, then TPE and if neither VSOE nor TPE exist, the Company uses its best estimate of selling price.
Many of the Company's revenue arrangements for Captisol involve a license agreement and the supply of manufactured Captisol product. Licenses may be granted to pharmaceutical companies for the use of Captisol product in the development of pharmaceutical compounds. The supply of the Captisol product may be for all phases of clinical trials and through commercial availability of the host drug or may be limited to certain phases of the clinical trial process. Management believes that the Company's licenses have stand-alone value at the outset of an arrangement because the customer obtains the right to use Captisol in its formulations without any additional input by the Company, and in a hypothetical stand-alone transaction, the customer would be able to procure inventory from another manufacturer in the absence of contractual provisions for exclusive supply by the Company.
Other nonrefundable, up-front license fees are recognized as revenue upon delivery of the license, if the license is determined to have standalone value that is not dependent on any future performance by the Company under the applicable collaboration agreement. Nonrefundable contingent event-based payments are recognized as revenue when the contingent event is met, which is usually the earlier of when payments are received or collections are assured, provided that it does not require future performance by the Company. The Company occasionally has sub-license obligations related to arrangements for which it receives license fees, milestones and royalties. Management evaluates the determination of gross versus net reporting based on each individual agreement.
Sales-based contingent payments from partners are accounted for similarly to royalties, with revenue recognized upon achievement of the sales targets assuming all other revenue recognition criteria for milestones are met. Revenue from development and regulatory milestones is recognized when earned, as evidenced by written acknowledgement from the collaborator, provided that (1) the milestone event is substantive, its achievability was not reasonably assured at the inception of the agreement, and the Company has no further performance obligations relating to that event, and (2) collectability is reasonably assured. If these criteria are not met, the milestone payment is recognized over the remaining period of the Company’s performance obligations under the arrangement.

Preclinical Study and Clinical Trial Accruals

Substantial portions of the Company’s preclinical studies and all of the Company’s clinical trials have been performed by third-party laboratories, CROs.  The Company accounts for a significant portion of its clinical study costs according to the terms of its contracts with CROs. The terms of its CRO contracts may result in payment flows that do not match the periods over which services are provided to us under such contracts. The Company's objective is to reflect the appropriate preclinical and clinical trial expenses in its financial statements in the same period as the services occur. As part of the process of preparing its financial statements, the Company relies on cost information provided by its CROs. The Company is also required to estimate certain of its expenses resulting from its obligations under its CRO contracts. Accordingly, the Company's preclinical study and clinical trial accrual is dependent upon the timely and accurate reporting of CROs and other third-party vendors. The Company periodically evaluates its estimates to determine if adjustments are necessary or appropriate as more information becomes available concerning changing circumstances, and conditions or events that may affect such estimates. No material adjustments to preclinical study and clinical trial accrued expenses have been recognized to date.

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expense consists of labor, material, equipment, and allocated facilities costs of the Company’s scientific staff who are working pursuant to the Company’s collaborative agreements and other research and development projects. Also included in research and development expenses are third-party costs incurred for the Company’s research programs including in-licensing costs, CRO costs and costs incurred by other research and development service vendors. We expense these costs as they are incurred. When we make payments for research and development services prior to the services being rendered, we record those amounts as prepaid assets on our consolidated balance sheet and we expense them as the services are provided

Stock-Based Compensation

The Company incurs share-based compensation expense related to restricted stock, its ESPP, and stock options

Restricted stock units (RSU) and performance stock units (PSU) are all considered restricted stock. The fair value of restricted stock is determined by the closing market price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant. The Company recognizes share-based compensation expense based on the fair value on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards, taking into consideration estimated forfeitures. PSU represents a right to receive a certain number of shares of common stock based on the achievement of corporate performance goals and continued employment during the vesting period. At each reporting period, the Company reassesses the probability of the achievement of such corporate performance goals and any expense change resulting from an adjustment in the estimated shares to be released are treated as a cumulative catch-up in the period of adjustment.

The Company uses the Black-Scholes-Merton option-pricing model to estimate the fair value of stock purchases under ESPP and stock options granted. The model assumptions include expected volatility, term, dividends, and the risk-free interest rate. The Company looks to historical volatility of the Company's stock to determine the expected volatility. The expected term of an award is based on historical forfeiture experience, exercise activity, and on the terms and conditions of the stock awards. The expected dividend yield is determined to be 0% given that the Company has never declared or paid regular cash dividends on its common stock and does not anticipate paying such cash dividends. The risk-free interest rate is based upon U.S. Treasury securities with remaining terms similar to the expected term of the share-based awards

The Company grants options and restricted stock awards to employees and non-employee directors. Non-employee directors are accounted for as employees. Options and restricted stock awards granted to certain non-employee directors vest one year from the date of grant. Options granted to employees vest 1/8 on the six month anniversary of the date of grant, and 1/48 each month thereafter for forty-two months. Restricted stock awards granted to employees vest over three years. All option awards generally expire ten years from the date of grant.

Stock-based compensation expense for awards to employees and non-employee directors is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period until the last tranche vests.
Income Taxes

The provision for income taxes is computed using the asset and liability method, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, and for the expected future tax benefit to be derived from tax loss and credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined using the enacted tax rates in effect for the years in which those tax assets are expected to be realized. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in the provision for income taxes in the period that includes the enactment date.

Deferred tax assets are regularly assessed to determine the likelihood they will be recovered from future taxable income. A valuation allowance is established when the Company believes it is more likely than not the future realization of all or some of a deferred tax asset will not be achieved. In evaluating the ability to recover deferred tax assets within the jurisdiction which they arise the Company considers all available positive and negative evidence. Factors reviewed include the cumulative pre-tax book income for the past three years, scheduled reversals of deferred tax liabilities, history of earnings and reliable forecasting, projections of pre-tax book income over the foreseeable future, and the impact of any feasible and prudent tax planning strategies.

The Company recognizes the impact of a tax position in the financial statements only if that position is more likely than not of being sustained upon examination by taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. Any interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions will be reflected in income tax expense.

Discontinued Operations

In 2006, we entered into a purchase agreement with Eisai pursuant to which Eisai agreed to acquire our Oncology product line which included four marketed oncology drugs: ONTAK, Targretin capsules, Targretin gel and Panretin gel. Certain liabilities were recorded associated with the disposal of the product line. During the year ended December 31, 2016 we recognized a $1.1 million gain due to subsequent changes in certain estimates and liabilities previously recorded. We recorded a provision for income taxes related to the gain of $0.4 million.

Convertible Debt

In August 2014, the Company completed a $245.0 million offering of 2019 Convertible Senior Notes, which bear interest at 0.75%. The Company accounted for the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes by separating the liability and equity components of the instrument in a manner that reflects the Company's nonconvertible debt borrowing rate. As a result, the Company assigned a value to the debt component of the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes equal to the estimated fair value of similar debt instruments without the conversion feature, which resulted in the Company recording the debt instrument at a discount. The Company is amortizing the debt discount over the life of the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes as additional non-cash interest expense utilizing the effective interest method.

Upon the occurrence of certain circumstances, holders of the 2019 Convertible Senior Notes may redeem all or a portion of their notes, which may require the use of a substantial amount of cash. At December 31, 2017, we had a working capital deficit of $1.8 million, which includes the 2019 Convertible Senior notes that are currently redeemable as of December 31, 2017 but excludes another $18.9 million that is classified as mezzanine equity. As noted in Note 6, the debt may change from current to non-current period over period, primarily as a result of changes in the Company’s stock price. Management believes that it is remote that holders of the notes would choose to convert their notes early because the fair value of the security that a noteholder can currently realize in an active market is greater than the conversion value the noteholder would realize upon early conversion. In the unlikely event that all the debt was converted, we have three business days following a 50 trading day observation period from the convert date to pay the principal in cash. We have positive operating income and positive cash flow from operations since December 31, 2013 and, accordingly, while there can be no assurance, we believe we have the ability to raise additional capital through an S-3 registration or via alternative financing arrangements such as convertible or straight debt.
Income Per Share
Basic income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted income (loss) per share is computed based on the sum of the weighted average number of common shares and potentially dilutive common shares outstanding during the period

Potentially dilutive common shares consist of shares issuable under 2019 convertible senior notes, stock options and restricted stock. 2019 convertible senior notes have a dilutive impact when the average market price of the Company’s common stock exceeds the applicable conversion price of the respective notes. Potentially dilutive common shares from stock options and restricted stock are determined using the average share price for each period under the treasury stock method. In addition, the following amounts are assumed to be used to repurchase shares: proceeds from exercise of stock options; the average amount of unrecognized compensation expense for restricted stock; and estimated tax benefits that will be recorded in additional paid-in capital when expenses related to equity awards become deductible. In loss periods, basic net loss per share and diluted net loss per share are identical since the effect of otherwise dilutive potential common shares is anti-dilutive and therefore excluded

The following table presents the calculation of weighted average shares used to calculate basic and diluted earnings per share (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
Weighted average shares outstanding:



Dilutive potential common shares:
   Restricted stock



   Stock options






   2019 Convertible Senior Notes



Shares used to compute diluted income per share



Potentially dilutive shares excluded from calculation due to anti-dilutive effect



Comprehensive Income (Loss)

Comprehensive income (loss) represents net income (loss) adjusted for the change during the periods presented in unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities less reclassification adjustments for realized gains or losses included in net income (loss). The unrealized gains or losses are reported on the Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss).

Accounting Standards Recently Adopted

Stock Compensation - In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation ("Topic 718"), which aims to simplify the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including accounting for income taxes, classification on the statement of cash flows, accounting for forfeitures, and classification of awards as either liabilities or equity. This ASU was effective for us beginning in the first quarter of 2017. This new standard increases the volatility of net income by requiring excess tax benefits from share-based payment arrangements to be classified as discrete items within the provision for income taxes, rather than recognizing excess tax benefits in additional paid-in capital. Upon adoption in the first quarter of 2017, the Company recorded $17.9 million, to retained earnings, primarily related to unrealized tax benefits associated with share-based compensation. During the year ended December 31, 2017, excess tax benefits of $4.7 million were reflected as a component of the provision for income taxes. Also, as a result of the adoption of this new standard, the Company made an accounting policy election to recognize forfeitures as they occur and will no longer estimate expected forfeitures.

In addition, excess income tax benefits from share-based compensation arrangements are classified as cash flows from operations, rather than cash flows from financing activities. We elected to apply the cash flows classification guidance prospectively and have not adjusted prior periods.
Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
Revenue Recognition - In May 2014, the FASB issued new guidance related to revenue recognition, ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”), which outlines a comprehensive revenue recognition model and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance. The new guidance requires a company to recognize revenue upon transfer of goods or services to a customer at an amount that reflects the expected consideration to be received in exchange for those goods or services. ASC 606 defines a five-step approach for recognizing revenue, which may require a company to use more judgment and make more estimates than under the current guidance. Two methods of adoption are permitted: (a) full retrospective adoption, meaning the standard is applied to all periods presented; or (b) modified retrospective adoption, meaning the cumulative effect of applying the new guidance is recognized at the date of initial application as an adjustment to the opening retained earnings balance. In addition, ASU 2014-09 adds a new Subtopic to the Codification, ASC 340-40, Other Assets and Deferred Costs: Contracts with Customers, to provide guidance on costs related to obtaining a contract with a customer and costs incurred in fulfilling a contract with a customer that are not in the scope of another ASC Topic.
We have substantially completed our assessment of the new standards and are finalizing the new required disclosures. The standard will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements by accelerating the timing of recognition for revenues related to royalties, and potentially certain contingent milestone based payments. We will adopt ASC 606 effective January 1, 2018, by recognizing the cumulative effect of initially applying the new standard as a decrease to the opening balance of accumulated deficit. Based on our analysis of open contracts as of December 31, 2017, we expect this amount to be approximately $33 million.

Financial Instruments - In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall ("Subtopic 825-10"), which requires equity investments (other than those accounted for under the equity method or those that result in consolidation) to be measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in net income. ASU 2016-01 will be effective for us beginning in the first quarter of 2018. We anticipate that the adoption of ASU 2016- 01 may increase the volatility of other income and expense.

In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which amends the impairment model by requiring entities to use a forward-looking approach based on expected losses to estimate credit losses on certain types of financial instruments, including trade receivables and available for sale debt securities. The ASU is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of 2020, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2016-13 on the consolidated financial statements.

Statement of Cash Flows - In August 2016 the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15 Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230), Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. The guidance addresses the classification of cash flows related to (1) debt prepayment or extinguishment costs, (2) settlement of zero-coupon debt instruments or other debt instruments with coupon rates that are insignificant in relation to the effective interest rate of the borrowing, (3) contingent consideration payments made after a business combination, (4) proceeds from the settlement of insurance claims, (5) proceeds from the settlement of corporate-owned life insurance, including bank-owned life insurance, (6) distributions received from equity method investees and (7) beneficial interests in securitization transactions. The guidance also clarifies how the predominance principle should be applied when cash receipts and cash payments have aspects of more than one class of cash flows. The new guidance will be effective for fiscal year 2018 and early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the effect that the updated standard will have on our consolidated financial statements. We expect contingent consideration payment presentation will change to conform to the standard.

Business Combinations - In January 2017 the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business. This new standard clarifies the definition of a business in order to allow for the evaluation of whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions or disposals of assets or businesses. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years, which means that it will be effective for us in the first quarter of 2018. We are currently evaluating the impact of our pending adoption of ASU 2017-01 on our consolidated financial statements.

Goodwill Impairment - In January 2017 the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350), Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. This new standard eliminates Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Instead, an entity should compare the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit's fair value, not to exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, which means that it will be effective for us in the first quarter of 2020. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of our pending adoption of ASU 2017-04 on our consolidated financial statements.

We do not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements or disclosures.