Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2023
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
On November 1, 2022, we completed the separation (the “Separation”) of our antibody discovery business and certain related assets and liabilities (the “OmniAb Business”) through a spin-off of OmniAb to Ligand’s shareholders of record as of October 26, 2022 on a pro rata basis (the “Distribution”) and merger (the “Merger”) of OmniAb with a wholly owned subsidiary of a separate public company, OmniAb, Inc. (formerly known as Avista Public Acquisition Corp. II (“New OmniAb”)), in a Reverse Morris Trust transaction pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of March 23, 2022 (the “Merger Agreement”), and the Separation and Distribution Agreement, dated as of March 23, 2022 (the “Separation Agreement”) (the Merger Agreement and Separation Agreement, collectively with the other related transaction documents, the “Transaction Agreements”). Pursuant to the Transaction Agreements, Ligand contributed to OmniAb cash and certain assets and liabilities constituting the OmniAb Business, including but not limited to the equity interests of Ab Initio Biotherapeutics, Inc., Crystal Bioscience, Inc., Icagen, LLC, Taurus Biosciences, LLC and xCella Biosciences, Inc.
After the spin-off of our OmniAb antibody discovery business, Ligand is a revenue-generating biopharmaceutical company focused on developing or acquiring technologies that help pharmaceutical companies discover and develop medicines. We operate in one business segment: development and licensing of biopharmaceutical assets.
Basis of Presentation
Our condensed consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of Ligand and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. We have included all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, which we considered necessary for a fair presentation of our financial results. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes should be read together with the audited consolidated financial statements included in our 2022 Annual Report. Interim financial results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year.
The Company determined that the spin-off of the OmniAb Business in November 2022 met the criteria for classification as a discontinued operation in accordance with ASC Subtopic 205-20, Discontinued Operations (“ASC 205-20”). Accordingly, the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been updated to present the results of all discontinued operations reported as a separate component of loss in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss (see Note 4, Spin-off of OmniAb). All disclosures have been adjusted to reflect continuing operations.
Significant Accounting Policies
We have described our significant accounting policies in Note 1, Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2022 Annual Report.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
Our revenue is generated primarily from royalties on sales of products commercialized by our partners, Captisol material sales, and contract revenue for services, license fees and development, regulatory and sales based milestone payments.
We apply the following five-step model in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, in order to determine the revenue: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation.
We receive royalty revenue on sales by our partners of products covered by patents that we or our partners own under contractual agreements. We do not have future performance obligations under these license arrangements. We generally satisfy our obligation to grant intellectual property rights on the effective date of the contract. However, we apply the royalty recognition constraint required under the guidance for sales-based royalties which requires a royalty to be recorded no sooner than the underlying sale occurs. Therefore, royalties on sales of products commercialized by our partners are recognized in the quarter the product is sold. Our partners generally report sales information to us on a one quarter lag. Thus, we estimate the expected royalty proceeds based on an analysis of historical experience and interim data provided by our partners including their publicly announced sales. Differences between actual and estimated royalty revenues, which have not been material, are adjusted in the period in which they become known, typically the following quarter.
Revenue from Captisol sales is recognized when control of Captisol material is transferred or intellectual property license rights are granted to our customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive from our customers in exchange for those products or rights. A performance obligation is considered distinct from other obligations in a contract when it provides a benefit to the customer either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer and is separately identified in the contract. For Captisol material or intellectual property license rights, we consider our performance obligation satisfied once we have transferred control of the product or granted the intellectual property rights, meaning the customer has the ability to use and obtain the benefit of the Captisol material or intellectual property license right. We recognize revenue for satisfied performance obligations only when we determine there are no uncertainties regarding payment terms or transfer of control. Sales tax and other taxes we collect concurrent with revenue-producing activities are excluded from revenue. We have elected to recognize the cost of freight and shipping when control over Captisol material has transferred to the customer as an expense in Cost of Captisol. We expense incremental costs of obtaining a contract when incurred if the expected amortization period of the asset that we would have recognized is one year or less or the amount is immaterial. We did not incur any incremental costs of obtaining a contract during the periods reported.
Our contracts with customers often include variable consideration in the form of contingent milestone payments. We include contingent milestone payments in the estimated transaction price when it is probable a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur. These estimates are based on historical experience, anticipated results and our best judgment at the time. If the contingent milestone payment is based on sales, we apply the royalty recognition constraint and record revenue when the underlying sale has taken place. Significant judgments must be made in determining the transaction price for our sales of intellectual property. Because of the risk that products in development with our partners will not reach development milestones or receive regulatory approval, we generally recognize any contingent payments that would be due to us upon the development milestone or regulatory approval.
Depending on the terms of the arrangement, we may also defer a portion of the consideration received if we have to satisfy a future obligation, which typically occurs with our contracts for R&D services. In general, for R&D services, which has not been significant, we recognize revenue over time and measure our progress using an input method. The input methods we use are based on the effort we expend or costs we incur toward the satisfaction of our performance obligation.
Some customer contracts are sublicenses which require that we make payments to an upstream licensor related to license fees, milestones and royalties which we receive from customers. In such cases, we evaluate the determination of gross revenue as a principal versus net revenue as an agent reporting based on each individual agreement.
Depending on the terms of the arrangement, we may also defer a portion of the consideration received because we have to satisfy a future obligation. The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in billed accounts receivable, unbilled receivables (contract assets), and customer advances and deposits (contract liabilities) on the consolidated balance sheet. Except for royalty revenue and certain service revenue, we generally receive payment at the point we satisfy our obligation or soon after. Therefore, we do not generally carry any contract asset balance. Any fees billed in advance of being earned are recorded as deferred revenue, which has not been significant.
Disaggregation of Revenue
The following table represents disaggregation of royalties, Captisol and contract revenue (in thousands):
(1) Captisol - COVID represents revenue on Captisol supplied for use in formulation with remdesivir, an antiviral treatment for COVID-19.
Our short-term investments consist of the following at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 (in thousands):
During the nine months ended September 30, 2023, we sold 4.5 million shares of Viking common stock and recognized a realized gain of $37.2 million in total. During the three months ended September 30, 2023, there were no sales of Viking common stock.
Gain (loss) from short-term investments in our condensed consolidated statements of operations includes both realized and unrealized gain (loss) from our short-term investments in public equity and warrant securities.
Allowances are recorded for available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses. This limits the amount of credit losses that can be recognized for available-for-sale debt securities to the amount by which carrying value exceeds fair value and requires the reversal of previously recognized credit losses if fair value increases. The provisions of the credit losses standard did not have a material impact on our available-for-sale debt securities during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023.
The following table summarizes our available-for-sale debt securities by contractual maturity (in thousands):
Our investment policy is capital preservation and we only invest in U.S.-dollar denominated investments. We held a total of 48 investments which were in an unrealized loss position with a total of $0.1 million unrealized losses as of September 30, 2023. We believe that we will collect the principal and interest due on our debt securities that have an amortized cost in excess of fair value. The unrealized losses are largely due to changes in interest rates and not to unfavorable changes in the credit quality associated with these securities that impacted our assessment on collectability of principal and interest. We do not intend to sell these securities and it is not more-likely-than-not that we will be required to sell these securities before the recovery of the amortized cost basis. Accordingly, no credit losses were recognized for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Credit Losses
Our accounts receivable arise primarily from sales on credit to customers. We establish an allowance for credit losses to present the net amount of accounts receivable expected to be collected. The allowance is determined by using the loss-rate method, which requires an estimation of loss rates based upon historical loss experience adjusted for factors that are relevant to determining the expected collectability of accounts receivable. Some of these factors include macroeconomic conditions that correlate with historical loss experience, delinquency trends, aging behavior of receivables and credit and liquidity quality indicators for industry groups, customer classes or individual customers. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, we considered the current and expected future economic and market conditions and concluded an increase of $0.1 million and an increase of $0.1 million of allowance for credit losses, respectively.
Inventory, which consists of finished goods, is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We determine cost using the specific identification method.
We analyze our inventory levels periodically and write down inventory to net realizable value if it has become obsolete, has a cost basis in excess of its expected net realizable value or is in excess of expected requirements. There were no write-downs recorded against inventory for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022. In addition to finished goods, as of September 30, 2023 inventory consists of Captisol prepayments of $4.7 million, and as of December 31, 2022 inventory consists of Captisol prepayments of $5.9 million.
Goodwill and Other Identifiable Intangible Assets
Goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets consist of the following (in thousands):
Commercial License Rights
Commercial license rights consist of the following (in thousands):
(1) Amounts represent accumulated amortization to principal of $11.1 million, credit loss adjustments of $9.7 million and impairment of $0.9 million as of September 30, 2023.
(2) Amounts represent accumulated amortization to principal of $11.6 million and credit loss adjustments of $6.5 million as of December 31, 2022.
Commercial license rights represent a portfolio of future milestone and royalty payment rights acquired from Selexis, S.A. (Selexis) in April 2013 and April 2015, CorMatrix Cardiovascular, Inc. (CorMatrix) in May 2016, which was later acquired by Aziyo (Aziyo changed its corporate name to Elutia Inc. ("Elutia") in September 2023) in 2017, and Dianomi Therapeutics, Inc. in January 2019. Commercial license rights acquired are accounted for as financial assets in accordance with ASC 310, Receivables, as further discussed in Note 1, Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2022 Annual Report.
We estimated the credit losses at the individual asset level by considering the performance against the programs, the company operating performance and the macroeconomic forecast. In addition, we have judgmentally applied credit loss risk factors to the future expected payments with consideration given to the timing of the payment. Given the higher inherent credit risk associated with longer term receivables, we applied a lower risk factor to the earlier years and progressively higher risk factors to the later years. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, we further considered the current and expected future economic and market conditions and recorded a $3.2 million credit loss adjustment to Elutia commercial license rights based on the assessment of current company performance and nonpayment by Elutia in recent quarters. Management is in process of modifying the payment terms with Elutia and has placed the loan on the non-accrual method during the three months ended September 30, 2023, instead of the effective interest method until we are able to reliably estimate future cash flows. During the three months ended September 30, 2023 we did not recognized revenue related to the Elutia commercial license right. During the nine months ended September 30, 2023 we recognized $0.8 million of revenue related to the Elutia commercial license right.
In addition, we recorded a $0.9 million impairment loss for Selexis commercial license rights during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 as a result of recently reduced programs.
Accrued liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
Share-based compensation expense for awards to employees and non-employee directors is a non-cash expense and is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period. The following table summarizes share-based compensation expense recorded as components of research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses for the periods indicated (in thousands):
(a) Prior period amounts have been retrospectively adjusted to reflect the effects of the Separation.
The fair-value for options that were awarded to employees and directors was estimated at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option valuation model with the following weighted-average assumptions:
A limited amount of performance-based restricted stock units (PSUs) contain a market condition based on our relative total shareholder return ranked on a percentile basis against the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index over a three year performance period, with a range of 0% to 200% of the target amount granted to be issued under the award. Share-based compensation cost for these PSUs is measured using the Monte-Carlo simulation valuation model and is not adjusted for the achievement, or lack thereof, of the performance conditions.
Net Income (Loss) Per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing net (loss) income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share is computed based on the sum of the weighted average number of common shares and potentially dilutive common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed based on the sum of the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period.
Potentially dilutive common shares consist of shares issuable under the 2023 Notes, stock options and restricted stock. Although we paid off the 2023 Notes in May 2023, it would have a dilutive impact when the average market price of our common stock exceeds the maximum conversion price during the nine months ended September 30, 2023. It was our intent and policy to settle conversions through combination settlement, which involved payment in cash equal to the principal portion and delivery of shares of common stock for the excess of the conversion value over the principal portion. Potentially dilutive common shares from stock options and restricted stock are determined using the average share price for each period under the treasury stock method. In addition, the following amounts are assumed to be used to repurchase shares: proceeds from exercise of stock options and the average amount of unrecognized compensation expense for the awards. See Note 6, Debt and Note 8, Stockholders’ Equity.
In accordance with ASC 260, Earnings per Share, if a company had a discontinuing operation, the company uses income from continuing operations, adjusted for preferred dividends and similar adjustments, as its control number to determine whether potential common shares are dilutive. The following table presents the calculation of weighted average shares used to calculate basic and diluted earnings per share (in thousands):
For the three months ended September 30, 2023, due to the net loss for the period, all of the 0.3 million weighted average equity awards were anti-dilutive.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef