Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2023
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
On November 1, 2022, we completed the separation (the “Separation”) of our antibody discovery business and certain related assets and liabilities (the “OmniAb Business”) through a spin-off of OmniAb to Ligand’s shareholders of record as of October 26, 2022 on a pro rata basis (the “Distribution”) and merger (the “Merger”) of OmniAb with a wholly owned subsidiary of a separate public company, OmniAb, Inc. (formerly known as Avista Public Acquisition Corp. II (“New OmniAb”)), in a Reverse Morris Trust transaction pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of March 23, 2022 (the “Merger Agreement”), and the Separation and Distribution Agreement, dated as of March 23, 2022 (the “Separation Agreement”) (the Merger Agreement and Separation Agreement, collectively with the other related transaction documents, the “Transaction Agreements”). Pursuant to the Transaction Agreements, Ligand contributed to OmniAb cash and certain assets and liabilities constituting the OmniAb Business, including but not limited to the equity interests of Ab Initio Biotherapeutics, Inc., Crystal Bioscience, Inc., Icagen, LLC, Taurus Biosciences, LLC and xCella Biosciences, Inc.
After the spin-off of our OmniAb antibody discovery business, Ligand is a revenue-generating biopharmaceutical company focused on developing or acquiring technologies that help pharmaceutical companies discover and develop medicines. We operate in one business segment: development and licensing of biopharmaceutical assets.
Basis of Presentation Basis of PresentationOur condensed consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of Ligand and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. We have included all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, which we considered necessary for a fair presentation of our financial results. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes should be read together with the audited consolidated financial statements included in our 2022 Annual Report. Interim financial results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year.
Discontinued Operations
Discontinued Operations
The Company determined that the spin-off of the OmniAb Business in November 2022 met the criteria for classification as a discontinued operation in accordance with ASC Subtopic 205-20, Discontinued Operations (“ASC 205-20”). Accordingly, the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been updated to present the results of all discontinued operations reported as a separate component of loss in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss (see Note 2, Spin-off of OmniAb). All disclosures have been adjusted to reflect continuing operations.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
Our revenue is generated primarily from royalties on sales of products commercialized by our partners, Captisol material sales, and contract revenue for services, license fees and development, regulatory and sales based milestone payments.
We apply the following five-step model in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, in order to determine the revenue: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation.
We receive royalty revenue on sales by our partners of products covered by patents that we or our partners own under contractual agreements. We do not have future performance obligations under these license arrangements. We generally satisfy our obligation to grant intellectual property rights on the effective date of the contract. However, we apply the royalty recognition constraint required under the guidance for sales-based royalties which requires a royalty to be recorded no sooner than the underlying sale occurs. Therefore, royalties on sales of products commercialized by our partners are recognized in the quarter the product is sold. Our partners generally report sales information to us on a one quarter lag. Thus, we estimate the expected royalty proceeds based on an analysis of historical experience and interim data provided by our partners including their publicly announced sales. Differences between actual and estimated royalty revenues, which have not been material, are adjusted in the period in which they become known, typically the following quarter.
Captisol Sales
Revenue from Captisol sales is recognized when control of Captisol material is transferred or intellectual property license rights are granted to our customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive from our customers in exchange for those products or rights. A performance obligation is considered distinct from other obligations in a contract when it provides a benefit to the customer either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer and is separately identified in the contract. For Captisol material or intellectual property license rights, we consider our performance obligation satisfied once we have transferred control of the product or granted the intellectual property rights, meaning the customer has the ability to use and obtain the benefit of the Captisol material or intellectual property license right. We recognize revenue for satisfied performance obligations only when we determine there are no uncertainties regarding payment terms or transfer of control. Sales tax and other taxes we collect concurrent with revenue-producing activities are excluded from revenue. We have elected to recognize the cost of freight and shipping when control over Captisol material has transferred to the customer as an expense in Cost of Captisol. We expense incremental costs of obtaining a contract when incurred if the expected amortization period of the asset that we would have recognized is one year or less or the amount is immaterial. We did not incur any incremental costs of obtaining a contract during the periods reported.
Contract Revenue
Our contracts with customers often include variable consideration in the form of contingent milestone payments. We include contingent milestone payments in the estimated transaction price when it is probable a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur. These estimates are based on historical experience, anticipated results and our best judgment at the time. If the contingent milestone payment is based on sales, we apply the royalty recognition constraint and record revenue when the underlying sale has taken place. Significant judgments must be made in determining the transaction price for our sales of intellectual property. Because of the risk that products in development with our partners will not reach development milestones or receive regulatory approval, we generally recognize any contingent payments that would be due to us upon the development milestone or regulatory approval. Depending on the terms of the arrangement, we may also defer a portion of the consideration received if we have to satisfy a future obligation, which typically occurs with our contracts for R&D services.
For R&D services we recognize revenue over time and we measure our progress using an input method. The input methods we use are based on the effort we expend or costs we incur toward the satisfaction of our performance obligation. We estimate the amount of effort we expend, including the time it will take us to complete the activities, or the costs we may incur in a given period, relative to the estimated total effort or costs to satisfy the performance obligation. This results in a percentage that we multiply by the transaction price to determine the amount of revenue we recognize each period. This approach requires us to make numerous estimates and use significant judgement. If our estimates or judgements change over the course of the collaboration, they may affect the timing and amount of revenue that we recognize in the current and future periods.
Some customer contracts are sublicenses which require that we make payments to an upstream licensor related to license fees, milestones and royalties which we receive from customers. In such cases, we evaluate the determination of gross revenue as a principal versus net revenue as an agent reporting based on each individual agreement.
Deferred Revenue
Depending on the terms of the arrangement, we may also defer a portion of the consideration received because we have to satisfy a future obligation.
The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in billed accounts receivable, unbilled receivables (contract assets), and customer advances and deposits (contract liabilities) on the consolidated balance sheet. Except for royalty revenue and certain service revenue, we generally receive payment at the point we satisfy our obligation or soon after. Therefore, we do not generally carry any contract asset balance. Any fees billed in advance of being earned are recorded as deferred revenue.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Credit Losses Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Credit LossesOur accounts receivable arise primarily from sales on credit to customers. We establish an allowance for credit losses to present the net amount of accounts receivable expected to be collected. The allowance is determined by using the loss-rate method, which requires an estimation of loss rates based upon historical loss experience adjusted for factors that are relevant to determining the expected collectability of accounts receivable. Some of these factors include macroeconomic conditions that correlate with historical loss experience, delinquency trends, aging behavior of receivables and credit and liquidity quality indicators for industry groups, customer classes or individual customers.
Inventory, which consists of finished goods, is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We determine cost using the specific identification method.
We analyze our inventory levels periodically and write down inventory to net realizable value if it has become obsolete, has a cost basis in excess of its expected net realizable value or is in excess of expected requirements. There were no write-downs recorded against inventory for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022. As of March 31, 2023 inventory consists of Captisol prepayments of $5.4 million, and as of December 31, 2022 inventory consists of Captisol prepayments of $5.9 million.
Commercial License Rights
Commercial License Rights
Commercial license rights consist of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2023 December 31, 2022
Net Gross
Aziyo and CorMatrix $ 17,696  $ (9,122) $ 8,574  $ 17,696  $ (9,538) $ 8,158 
Selexis and Dianomi 10,602  (8,745) 1,857  10,602  (8,578) 2,024 
    Total $ 28,298  $ (17,867) $ 10,431  $ 28,298  $ (18,116) $ 10,182 
(1) Amounts represent accumulated amortization to principal of $11.4 million and credit loss adjustments of $6.5 million as of March 31, 2023.
(2) Amounts represent accumulated amortization to principal of $11.6 million and credit loss adjustments of $6.5 million as of December 31, 2022.

Commercial license rights represent a portfolio of future milestone and royalty payment rights acquired from Selexis, S.A. (Selexis) in April 2013 and April 2015, CorMatrix Cardiovascular, Inc. (CorMatrix) in May 2016, which was later acquired by Aziyo in 2017, and Dianomi Therapeutics, Inc. in January 2019. Commercial license rights acquired are accounted for as financial assets in accordance with ASC 310, Receivables, as further discussed in Note 1, Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2022 Annual Report.
We estimated the credit losses at the individual asset level by considering the performance against the programs, the company operating performance and the macroeconomic forecast. In addition, we have judgmentally applied credit loss risk factors to the future expected payments with consideration given to the timing of the payment. Given the higher inherent credit risk
associated with longer term receivables, we applied a lower risk factor to the earlier years and progressively higher risk factors to the later years. During the three months ended March 31, 2023, we further considered the current and expected future economic and market conditions and concluded no further adjustment was needed on the allowance for credit losses as of March 31, 2023.
Share-Based Compensation
Share-Based Compensation
Share-based compensation expense for awards to employees and non-employee directors is a non-cash expense and is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period. The following table summarizes share-based compensation expense recorded as components of research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses for the periods indicated (in thousands):
Three months ended
March 31,
SBC - Research and development expenses $ 1,707  $ 2,196 
SBC - General and administrative expenses 4,224  4,913 
$ 5,931  $ 7,109 
(a) Prior period amounts have been retrospectively adjusted to reflect the effects of the Separation.
The fair-value for options that were awarded to employees and directors was estimated at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option valuation model with the following weighted-average assumptions:

Three months ended
March 31,
2023 2022
Risk-free interest rate 4.1% 1.6%
Dividend yield
Expected volatility 53% 50%
Expected term (years) 5.3 4.7

A limited amount of performance-based restricted stock units (PSUs) contain a market condition based on our relative total shareholder return ranked on a percentile basis against the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index over a three year performance period, with a range of 0% to 200% of the target amount granted to be issued under the award. Share-based compensation cost for these PSUs is measured using the Monte-Carlo simulation valuation model and is not adjusted for the achievement, or lack thereof, of the performance conditions.
Net Income (Loss) Per Share Net Income (Loss) Per ShareBasic net income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing net (loss) income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share is computed based on the sum of the weighted average number of common shares and potentially dilutive common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed based on the sum of the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period.Potentially dilutive common shares consist of shares issuable under the 2023 Notes, stock options and restricted stock. The 2023 Notes have a dilutive impact when the average market price of our common stock exceeds the maximum conversion price. It is our intent and policy to settle conversions through combination settlement, which involves payment in cash equal to the principal portion and delivery of shares of common stock for the excess of the conversion value over the principal portion. Potentially dilutive common shares from stock options and restricted stock are determined using the average share price for each period under the treasury stock method. In addition, the following amounts are assumed to be used to repurchase shares: proceeds from exercise of stock options and the average amount of unrecognized compensation expense for the awards.