Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2022
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
Our condensed consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of Ligand and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. We have included all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, which we considered necessary for a fair presentation of our financial results. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes should be read together with the audited consolidated financial statements included in our 2021 Annual Report. Interim financial results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year.
Significant Accounting Policies
We have described our significant accounting policies in Note 1, Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2021 Annual Report.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
Certain amounts in the prior period condensed consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform with the current period presentation. Specifically, “long-term deferred revenue” has been added to the condensed consolidated balance sheet, separated from “other long-term liabilities” in our prior period presentation.
Accounting Standards Updates, Recently Adopted
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt - Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity (“ASU 2020-06”). The guidance simplifies the complexity associated with applying U.S. GAAP for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. More specifically, the amendments focus on the guidance for convertible instruments and derivative scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity. Consequently, a convertible debt instrument, such as the Company’s 2023 Notes, will be accounted for as a single liability measured at its amortized cost, if no other features require bifurcation and recognition as derivatives. The new guidance also requires the if-converted method to be applied for all convertible instruments and requires additional disclosures. ASU 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years.
We adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2022 under the modified retrospective approach and the comparative information has not been restated and continues to be presented according to accounting standards in effect for those periods. The cumulative effect of the change was recognized as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings at the date of adoption and our 2023 Notes are no longer bifurcated into separate liability and equity components. The principal amount of the 2023 Notes is classified as a single liability measured at amortized cost in the condensed consolidated balance sheet for the period ended September 30, 2022. Upon adoption of ASU 2020-06 on January 1 2022, we recorded an adjustment to the 2023 Notes liability component, deferred tax liabilities, additional paid-in-capital and retained earnings. This adjustment was calculated based on the carrying amount of the 2023 Notes as if it had always been treated as a single liability measured at amortized cost. Furthermore, we recorded an adjustment to the debt issuance costs contra liability and equity (additional paid-in-capital) components under the same premise, as if debt issuance costs had always been treated as a contra liability only. Under this transition method, the cumulative effect of the accounting change increased the carrying amount of the 2023 Notes by $20.4 million, reduced deferred tax liabilities by $4.4 million, reduced additional paid-in capital by $51.1 million and increased retained earnings by $35.1 million. The net balance of the 2023 Notes at January 1, 2022 was $341.1 million which included an unamortized discount of $2.2 million.
Our revenue is generated primarily from royalties on sales of products commercialized by our partners, Captisol material sales, and contract revenue for services, license fees and development, regulatory and sales based milestone payments.
We apply the following five-step model in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, in order to determine the revenue: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation.
We receive royalty revenue on sales by our partners of products covered by patents that we or our partners own under contractual agreements. We do not have future performance obligations under these license arrangements. We generally satisfy our obligation to grant intellectual property rights on the effective date of the contract. However, we apply the royalty recognition constraint required under the guidance for sales-based royalties which requires a royalty to be recorded no sooner than the underlying sale occurs. Therefore, royalties on sales of products commercialized by our partners are recognized in the quarter the product is sold. Our partners generally report sales information to us on a one quarter lag. Thus, we estimate the expected royalty proceeds based on an analysis of historical experience and interim data provided by our partners including their publicly announced sales. Differences between actual and estimated royalty revenues, which have not been material, are adjusted in the period in which they become known, typically the following quarter.
Revenue from Captisol sales is recognized when control of Captisol material is transferred or intellectual property license rights are granted to our customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive from our customers in exchange for those products or rights. A performance obligation is considered distinct from other obligations in a contract when it provides a benefit to the customer either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer and is separately identified in the contract. For Captisol material or intellectual property license rights, we consider our performance obligation satisfied once we have transferred control of the product or granted the intellectual property rights, meaning the customer has the ability to use and obtain the benefit of the Captisol material or intellectual property license right. We recognize revenue for satisfied performance obligations only when we determine there are no uncertainties regarding payment terms or transfer of control. Sales tax and other taxes we collect concurrent with revenue-producing activities are excluded from revenue. We have elected to recognize the cost of freight and shipping when control over Captisol material has transferred to the customer as an expense in Cost of Captisol. We expense incremental costs of obtaining a contract when incurred if the expected amortization period of the asset that we would have recognized is one year or less or the amount is immaterial. We did not incur any incremental costs of obtaining a contract during the periods reported.
Our contracts with customers often include variable consideration in the form of contingent milestone payments. We include contingent milestone payments in the estimated transaction price when it is probable a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur. These estimates are based on historical experience, anticipated results and our best judgment at the time. If the contingent milestone payment is based on sales, we apply the royalty recognition constraint and record revenue when the underlying sale has taken place. Significant judgments must be made in determining the transaction price for our sales of intellectual property. Because of the risk that products in development with our partners will not reach development milestones or receive regulatory approval, we generally recognize any contingent payments that would be due to us upon the development milestone or regulatory approval. Depending on the terms of the arrangement, we may also defer a portion of the consideration received if we have to satisfy a future obligation, which typically occurs with our contracts for R&D services.
For R&D services we recognize revenue over time and we measure our progress using an input method. The input methods we use are based on the effort we expend or costs we incur toward the satisfaction of our performance obligation. We estimate the amount of effort we expend, including the time it will take us to complete the activities, or the costs we may incur in a given period, relative to the estimated total effort or costs to satisfy the performance obligation. This results in a percentage that we multiply by the transaction price to determine the amount of revenue we recognize each period. This approach requires us to make numerous estimates and use significant judgement. If our estimates or judgements change over the course of the collaboration, they may affect the timing and amount of revenue that we recognize in the current and future periods.
Some customer contracts are sublicenses which require that we make payments to an upstream licensor related to license fees, milestones and royalties which we receive from customers. In such cases, we evaluate the determination of gross revenue as a principal versus net revenue as an agent reporting based on each individual agreement.
Depending on the terms of the arrangement, we may also defer a portion of the consideration received because we have to satisfy a future obligation.
The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in billed accounts receivable, unbilled receivables (contract assets), and customer advances and deposits (contract liabilities) on the consolidated balance sheet. Except for royalty revenue and certain service revenue, we generally receive payment at the point we satisfy our obligation or soon after. Therefore, we do not generally carry any contract asset balance. Any fees billed in advance of being earned are recorded as deferred revenue. During the three months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, the amount recognized as revenue that was previously deferred was $4.1 million, and $7.7 million, respectively. During the nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021, the amount recognized as revenue that was previously deferred was $8.8 million, and $22.8 million, respectively.
Disaggregation of Revenue
The following table represents disaggregation of royalties, Captisol and contract revenue (in thousands):
(1) Captisol - COVID represents revenue on Captisol supplied for use in formulation with remdesivir, an antiviral treatment for COVID-19.
Our short-term investments consist of the following at September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021 (in thousands):
Gain (loss) from short-term investments in our condensed consolidated statements of operations includes both realized and unrealized gain (loss) from our short-term investments in public equity and warrant securities.
Allowances are recorded for available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses. This limits the amount of credit losses that can be recognized for available-for-sale debt securities to the amount by which carrying value exceeds fair value and requires the reversal of previously recognized credit losses if fair value increases. The provisions of the credit losses standard did not have a material impact on our available-for-sale debt securities during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022.
The following table summarizes our available-for-sale debt securities by contractual maturity (in thousands):
Our investment policy is capital preservation and we only invest in U.S.-dollar denominated investments. We held a total of 8 positions which were in an unrealized loss position as of September 30, 2022. We believe that we will collect the principal and interest due on our debt securities that have an amortized cost in excess of fair value. The unrealized losses are largely due to changes in interest rates and not to unfavorable changes in the credit quality associated with these securities that impacted our assessment on collectability of principal and interest. We do not intend to sell these securities and it is not more-likely-than-not that we will be required to sell these securities before the recovery of the amortized cost basis. Accordingly, no credit losses were recognized for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Credit Losses
Our accounts receivable arise primarily from sales on credit to customers. We establish an allowance for credit losses to present the net amount of accounts receivable expected to be collected. The allowance is determined by using the loss-rate method, which requires an estimation of loss rates based upon historical loss experience adjusted for factors that are relevant to determining the expected collectability of accounts receivable. Some of these factors include macroeconomic conditions that correlate with historical loss experience, delinquency trends, aging behavior of receivables and credit and liquidity quality indicators for industry groups, customer classes or individual customers. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, we considered the current and expected future economic and market conditions including, but not limited to, the anticipated unfavorable impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and recorded an adjustment of $(0.1) million and $(0.3) million of allowance for credit losses, respectively, as of September 30, 2022.
Inventory, which consists of finished goods, is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We determine cost using the first-in, first-out method or the specific identification method.
We analyze our inventory levels periodically and write down inventory to net realizable value if it has become obsolete, has a cost basis in excess of its expected net realizable value or is in excess of expected requirements. There were no write-downs related to obsolete inventory recorded for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 and 2021. As of September 30, 2022 inventory consists of Captisol prepayments of $7.4 million, and as of December 31, 2021 inventory consists of Captisol prepayments of $24.6 million.
Goodwill and Other Identifiable Intangible Assets
Goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets consist of the following (in thousands):
Prior to 2022, we only had one reporting unit and reportable segment. In connection with the announcement in March 2022 of our intention to separate the OmniAb business pursuant to a distribution to Ligand’s stockholders of Ligand’s shares in OmniAb followed by a merger with APAC, management concluded that we had two reporting units and reportable segments - the OmniAb business and the Ligand core business. See Note 2, Segment Information, for additional information. We performed a fair value analysis utilizing a combination of income approach and market approach to determine the fair value of each segment in order to appropriately allocate the goodwill between the segments as of the announcement date. The following table presents our allocation of goodwill balance by segment (in thousands):
Commercial License Rights
Commercial license rights consist of the following (in thousands):
(1) Amounts represent accumulated amortization to principal of $11.6 million and credit loss adjustments of $6.5 million as of September 30, 2022.
(2) Amounts represent accumulated amortization to principal of $11.7 million and credit loss adjustments of $6.5 million as of December 31, 2021.
Commercial license rights represent a portfolio of future milestone and royalty payment rights acquired from Selexis, S.A. (Selexis) in April 2013 and April 2015, CorMatrix Cardiovascular, Inc. (CorMatrix) in May 2016, which was later acquired by Aziyo in 2017, and Dianomi Therapeutics, Inc. in January 2019. Commercial license rights acquired are accounted for as financial assets in accordance with ASC 310, Receivables, as further discussed in Note 1, Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2021 Annual Report.
We estimated the credit losses at the individual asset level by considering the performance against the programs, the company operating performance and the macroeconomic forecast. In addition, we have judgmentally applied credit loss risk factors to the future expected payments with consideration given to the timing of the payment. Given the higher inherent credit risk associated with longer term receivables, we applied a lower risk factor to the earlier years and progressively higher risk factors to the later years. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, we further considered the current and expected future economic and market conditions surrounding the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and concluded no further adjustment was needed on the allowance for credit losses as of September 30, 2022.
Accrued liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
Share-based compensation expense for awards to employees and non-employee directors is a non-cash expense and is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period. The following table summarizes share-based compensation expense recorded as components of research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses for the periods indicated (in thousands):
The fair-value for options that were awarded to employees and directors was estimated at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option valuation model with the following weighted-average assumptions:
A limited amount of performance-based restricted stock units (PSUs) contain a market condition based on our relative total shareholder return ranked on a percentile basis against the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index over a three-year performance period, with a range of 0% to 200% of the target amount granted to be issued under the award. Share-based compensation cost for these PSUs is measured using the Monte-Carlo simulation valuation model and is not adjusted for the achievement, or lack thereof, of the performance conditions.
Net (Loss) Income Per Share
Basic net (loss) income per share is calculated by dividing net (loss) income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share is computed based on the sum of the weighted average number of common shares and potentially dilutive common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed based on the sum of the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period.
Potentially dilutive common shares consist of shares issuable under the 2023 Notes, stock options and restricted stock. The 2023 Notes have a dilutive impact when the average market price of our common stock exceeds the maximum conversion price. It is our intent and policy to settle conversions through combination settlement, which involves payment in cash equal to the principal portion and delivery of shares of common stock for the excess of the conversion value over the principal portion. Potentially dilutive common shares from stock options and restricted stock are determined using the average share price for each period under the treasury stock method. In addition, the following amounts are assumed to be used to repurchase shares: proceeds from exercise of stock options and the average amount of unrecognized compensation expense for the awards. See Note 4, Convertible Senior Notes and Note 6, Stockholders’ Equity.
The following table presents the calculation of weighted average shares used to calculate basic and diluted earnings per share (in thousands):
For the three months ended September 30, 2022, 0.6 million of potentially dilutive shares in connection with the adoption of ASU 2020-06 were anti-dilutive. Under the new standard, we are required to reflect the dilutive effect of the 2023 Notes by application of the if-converted method.For the nine months ended September 30, 2022, due to the net loss for the period, all of the 0.3 million weighted average equity awards and 1.1 million of potentially dilutive shares in connection with the adoption of ASU 2020-06 were anti-dilutive.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef