Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Fair Value Measurements

v3.21.2
Fair Value Measurements
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2021
Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]  
Fair Value Measurements Fair Value Measurements
Assets and Liabilities Measured on a Recurring Basis

The following table presents the hierarchy for our assets and liabilities measured at fair value (in thousands):
September 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total
Assets:
Short-term investments, excluding Viking(1)
$ 5,390  $ 251,578  $ 642  $ 257,610  $ 3,438  $ 320,647  $ 393  $ 324,478 
Investment in Viking common stock 42,171  —  —  42,171  32,763  —  —  32,763 
Investment in Viking warrants(2)
—  —  —  —  6,326  —  —  6,326 
     Total assets $ 47,561  $ 251,578  $ 642  $ 299,781  $ 42,527  $ 320,647  $ 393  $ 363,567 
Liabilities:
Crystal contingent liabilities(3)
$ —  $ —  $ 800  $ 800  $ —  $ —  $ 800  $ 800 
CyDex contingent liabilities —  —  349  349  —  —  508  508 
Metabasis contingent liabilities(4)
—  2,699  —  2,699  —  3,821  —  3,821 
Icagen contingent liabilities(5)
—  —  4,808  4,808  —  —  6,404  6,404 
Pfenex contingent liabilities(6)
—  —  —  —  —  —  37,600  37,600 
xCella contingent liabilities(7)
—  —  720  720  —  —  —  — 
Amounts owed to former licensor 31  —  —  31  60  —  —  60 
     Total liabilities $ 31  $ 2,699  $ 6,677  $ 9,407  $ 60  $ 3,821  $ 45,312  $ 49,193 

1.Excluding our investment in Viking, our short-term investments in marketable debt and equity securities are classified as available-for-sale securities based on management's intentions and are at level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, as these investment securities are valued based upon quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market. Short-term investments in mutual funds are valued at their net asset value (NAV) on the last day of the period. We have classified marketable securities with original maturities of greater than one year as short-term investments based upon our ability and intent to use any and all of those marketable securities to satisfy the liquidity needs of our current operations. In addition, we have investment in warrants resulting from Seelos Therapeutics Inc. milestone payments that were settled in shares during the first quarter of 2019 and are at level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, based on Black Scholes value estimated by management on the last day of the period.
2.Investment in Viking warrants, which we received as a result of Viking’s partial repayment of the Viking note receivable and our purchase of Viking common stock and warrants in April 2016, are classified as level 1 as the fair value is determined using quoted market prices in active markets for the same securities. The change of the fair value is recorded in "Gain (loss) from short-term investments" in our condensed consolidated statement of operations. During the nine months ended September 30, 2021, we exercised all of the outstanding Viking warrants.
3.The fair value of Crystal contingent liabilities was determined using a probability weighted income approach. Most of the contingent payments are based on development or regulatory milestones as defined in the merger agreement with Crystal. The fair value is subjective and is affected by changes in inputs to the valuation model including management’s estimates regarding the timing and probability of achievement of certain developmental and regulatory milestones. Changes in these estimates may materially affect the fair value.
4.In connection with our acquisition of Metabasis in January 2010, we issued Metabasis stockholders four tradable CVRs, one CVR from each of four respective series of CVR, for each Metabasis share. The CVRs entitle Metabasis stockholders to cash payments as frequently as every six months as cash is received by us from proceeds from the sale or partnering of any of the Metabasis drug development programs, among other triggering events. The liability for the CVRs is determined using quoted prices in a market that is not active for the underlying CVR. The carrying amount of the liability may fluctuate significantly based upon quoted market prices and actual amounts paid under the agreements may be materially different than the carrying amount of the liability. Several of the Metabasis drug development programs have been outlicensed to Viking, including VK2809. VK2809 is a novel selective TR-β agonist with potential in multiple indications, including hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemia, NASH, and X-ALD. Under the terms of the agreement with Viking, we may be entitled to up to $375 million of development, regulatory and commercial milestones and tiered royalties on potential future sales including a $10 million payment upon initiation of a Phase 3 clinical trial.
5.The fair value of Icagen contingent liabilities was determined using a probability weighted income approach. Most of the contingent payments are based on certain revenue milestones as defined in the asset purchase agreement with Icagen. The fair value is subjective and is affected by changes in inputs to the valuation model including management’s estimates regarding the timing and probability of achievement of certain developmental and regulatory milestones. Changes in these estimates may materially affect the fair value. During the nine months ended September 30, 2021, we paid $1.1 million contingent liability based on revenue milestones to former Icagen shareholders.
6.The fair value of Pfenex contingent liabilities was determined using a probability-adjusted income approach. These cash flows were then discounted to present value using a discount rate based on the market participants' cost of debt reflective of the Company. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021, we reduced the contingent liability by $3.8 million and $37.6 million, respectively, primarily due to the lower probability of achieving the specific development and regulatory milestone by December 31, 2021 as defined by the Pfenex CVR. See further detail on Pfenex CVR in Note 3, Acquisitions.
7.The fair value of xCella contingent liabilities is determined when it is probable that the earnout liability will occur and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Management concluded that no earnout liability would be recognized at the acquisition date in September 2020. During the nine months ended September 30, 2021, management recorded $0.7 million of earnout liability to be allocated to the cost of the acquired assets due to contingencies being met as part of the acquisition agreement.
A reconciliation of the level 3 financial instruments as of September 30, 2021 is as follows (in thousands):
Fair value of level 3 financial instruments as of December 31, 2020
$ 45,312 
Payments to CVR holders and other contingent payments (1,050)
Fair value adjustments to contingent liabilities (38,305)
Contingent liabilities from xCella asset acquisition 720
Fair value of level 3 financial instruments as of September 30, 2021
$ 6,677 

Assets Measured on a Non-Recurring Basis

We apply fair value techniques on a non-recurring basis associated with valuing potential impairment losses related to our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets and long-lived assets.

We evaluate goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets annually for impairment and whenever circumstances occur indicating that goodwill might be impaired. We determine the fair value of our reporting unit based on a combination of inputs, including the market capitalization of Ligand, as well as Level 3 inputs such as discounted cash flows, which are not observable from the market, directly or indirectly. We determine the fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets using the income approach based on Level 3 inputs.

In anticipation of our plan related to the OmniAb business, additional aspects of resource allocation and performance assessment may be made at the OmniAb business level and it is possible that the OmniAb business could become a separate operating segment in the future. See Note 9. Subsequent Event.
At September 30, 2021, there were no indicators of impairment of our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets, or long-lived assets.