Fair Value Measurements
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2021
|Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]|
|Fair Value Measurements||Fair Value Measurements
Assets and Liabilities Measured on a Recurring Basis
The following table presents the hierarchy for our assets and liabilities measured at fair value (in thousands):
1.Excluding our investment in Viking, our short-term investments in marketable debt and equity securities are classified as available-for-sale securities based on management's intentions and are at level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, as these investment securities are valued based upon quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market. Short-term investments in mutual funds are valued at their net asset value (NAV) on the last day of the period. We have classified marketable securities with original maturities of greater than one year as short-term investments based upon our ability and intent to use any and all of those marketable securities to satisfy the liquidity needs of our current operations. In addition, we have investment in warrants resulting from Seelos Therapeutics Inc. milestone payments that were settled in shares during the first quarter of 2019 and are at level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, based on Black Scholes value estimated by management on the last day of the period.
2.Investment in Viking warrants, which we received as a result of Viking’s partial repayment of the Viking note receivable and our purchase of Viking common stock and warrants in April 2016, are classified as level 1 as the fair value is determined using quoted market prices in active markets for the same securities. The change of the fair value is recorded in "Gain (loss) from short-term investments" in our condensed consolidated statement of operations. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, we exercised all of the outstanding Viking warrants.
3.The fair value of Crystal contingent liabilities was determined using a probability weighted income approach. Most of the contingent payments are based on development or regulatory milestones as defined in the merger agreement with Crystal. The fair value is subjective and is affected by changes in inputs to the valuation model including management’s estimates regarding the timing and probability of achievement of certain developmental and regulatory milestones. Changes in these estimates may materially affect the fair value.
4.In connection with our acquisition of Metabasis in January 2010, we issued Metabasis stockholders four tradable CVRs, one CVR from each of four respective series of CVR, for each Metabasis share. The CVRs entitle Metabasis stockholders to cash payments as frequently as every six months as cash is received by us from proceeds from the sale or partnering of any of the Metabasis drug development programs, among other triggering events. The liability for the CVRs is determined using quoted prices in a market that is not active for the underlying CVR. The carrying amount of the liability may fluctuate significantly based upon quoted market prices and actual amounts paid under the agreements may be materially different than the carrying amount of the liability. Several of the Metabasis drug development programs have been outlicensed to Viking, including VK2809. VK2809 is a novel selective TR-β agonist with potential in multiple indications, including hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemia, NASH, and X-ALD. Under the terms of the agreement with Viking, we may be entitled to up to $375 million of development, regulatory and commercial milestones and tiered royalties on potential future sales including a $10 million payment upon initiation of a Phase 3 clinical trial.
5.The fair value of Icagen contingent liabilities was determined using a probability weighted income approach. Most of the contingent payments are based on certain revenue milestones as defined in the asset purchase agreement with Icagen. The fair value is subjective and is affected by changes in inputs to the valuation model including management’s estimates regarding the timing and probability of achievement of certain developmental and regulatory milestones. Changes in these estimates may materially affect the fair value.
6.The fair value of Pfenex contingent liabilities was determined using a probability-adjusted income approach. These cash flows were then discounted to present value using a discount rate based on the market participants' cost of debt reflective of the Company.
7.The fair value of xCella contingent liabilities is determined when it is probable that the earnout liability will occur and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Management concluded that no earnout liability would be recognized at the acquisition date in September 2020. In the three months ended March 31, 2021, management recorded an earnout liability to be allocated to the cost of the acquired assets due to contingencies being met as part of the acquisition agreement.
A reconciliation of the level 3 financial instruments as of March 31, 2021 is as follows (in thousands):
Assets Measured on a Non-Recurring Basis
We apply fair value techniques on a non-recurring basis associated with valuing potential impairment losses related to our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets and long-lived assets.
We evaluate goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets annually for impairment and whenever circumstances occur indicating that goodwill might be impaired. We determine the fair value of our reporting unit based on a combination of inputs, including the market capitalization of Ligand, as well as Level 3 inputs such as discounted cash flows, which are not observable from the market, directly or indirectly. We determine the fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets using the income approach based on Level 3 inputs.There were no triggering events identified and no indication of impairment of our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets, or long-lived assets during the three months ended March 31, 2021.
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef