Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

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Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation Basis of PresentationOur condensed consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of Ligand and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. We have included all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, which we considered necessary for a fair presentation of our financial results. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes should be read together with the audited consolidated financial statements included in our 2019 Annual Report. Interim financial results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year.
Reclassifications and Prior Period Immaterial Error ReclassificationsCertain amounts in the prior period condensed consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform with the current period presentation. Specifically, effective the first quarter of 2020, we began to present service revenue and contract revenue separately, which were combined in license fees, milestones and other revenues in prior years. As a result, service revenue and contract revenue in the condensed consolidated statement of operations for first quarter 2019 have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates

The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
Accounting Standards Recently Adopted and Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
Accounting Standards Recently Adopted

Credit Losses - In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (Topic 326), which amends the impairment model by requiring entities to use a forward-looking approach based on expected losses to estimate credit losses on certain types of financial instruments, including trade receivables and available for sale debt securities. This standard includes our financial instruments, such as accounts receivable, investments that are generally of high credit quality, and commercial license rights. Previously, when credit losses were measured under GAAP, an entity generally only considered past events and current conditions in measuring the incurred loss. The new guidance requires us to identify, analyze, document and support new methodologies for quantifying expected credit loss estimates for our financial instruments, using information such as historical experience and current economic conditions, plus the use of reasonable supportable forecast information. We adopted ASU 2016-13 on January 1, 2020, using a modified retrospective transition method, which requires a cumulative-effect adjustment, if any, to the opening balance sheet of retained earnings to be recognized on the date of adoption with prior periods not restated. The cumulative-effect adjustment, net of tax, recorded on January 1, 2020, is approximately $5.2 million on our unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2020. Results for periods after January 1, 2020 are presented under ASU 2016-13 while prior period amounts continue to be reported under previously applicable accounting standards. See additional disclosure on credit losses under “Short-term Investments”, “Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Credit Losses” and “Commercial License and Other Economic Rights” discussed below.

Goodwill Impairment Testing - In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04, Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, which eliminates the requirement to perform a hypothetical purchase price allocation to measure goodwill impairment. Under the new standard the goodwill impairment test is performed by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, and recognizing an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, although it cannot exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. We adopted this standard on January 1, 2020, and the adoption did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.

Fair Value Measurement - In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement: Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820), which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements. We adopted this standard on January 1, 2020, and the adoption did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.

Collaborative Arrangements - In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements: Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606 (Topic 808). The new standard clarifies that certain transactions between participants in a collaborative arrangement should be accounted for under Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, when the counterparty is a customer for a good or service that is a distinct unit of account. The amendments also preclude entities from presenting consideration from transactions with a collaborator that is not a customer together with revenue recognized from contracts with customers. We adopted this standard on January 1, 2020, and the adoption did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
Income Taxes - In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. The standard is expected to reduce cost and complexity related to accounting for income taxes. The new guidance eliminates certain exceptions and clarifies and amends existing guidance to promote consistent application among reporting entities. This standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. Depending on the amendment, adoption may be applied on a retrospective, modified retrospective or prospective basis. We adopted this standard on a prospective basis on January 1, 2020, and the adoption did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.

Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted

We do not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements or disclosures.
Revenue
Revenue

Our revenue is generated primarily from royalties on sales of products commercialized by our partners, Captisol material sales, service revenue, and contract revenue for license fees and development, regulatory and sales based milestone payments.

Royalties, Service Revenue, and Contract Revenue

We receive royalty revenue on sales by our partners of products covered by patents that we own. We do not have future performance obligations under these license arrangements. We generally satisfy our obligation to grant intellectual property rights on the effective date of the contract. However, we apply the royalty recognition constraint required under the guidance for sales-based royalties which requires a sales-based royalty to be recorded no sooner than the underlying sale. Therefore, royalties on sales of products commercialized by our partners are recognized in the quarter the product is sold. Our partners generally report sales information to us on a one quarter lag. Thus, we estimate the expected royalty proceeds based on an analysis of historical experience and interim data provided by our partners including their publicly announced sales. Differences between actual and estimated royalty revenues are adjusted for in the period in which they become known, typically the following quarter.

We recognize service revenue for contracted R&D services performed for our customers over time. We measure our progress using an input method based on the effort we expend or costs we incur toward the satisfaction of our performance obligation. We estimate the amount of effort we expend, including the time we estimate it will take us to complete the activities, or costs we incur in a given period, relative to the estimated total effort or costs to satisfy the performance obligation. This results in a percentage that we multiply by the transaction price to determine the amount of revenue we recognize each period. This approach requires us to make estimates and use judgement. If our estimates or judgements change over the course of the collaboration, they may affect the timing and amount of revenue that we recognize in the current and future periods.

Our contract revenue includes license fees and future contingent milestone based payments. We include contingent milestone based payments in the estimated transaction price when there is a basis to reasonably estimate the amount of the payment. These estimates are based on historical experience, anticipated results and our best judgment at the time. If the contingent milestone based payment is sales-based, we apply the royalty recognition constraint and record revenue when the underlying sale has taken place. Significant judgments must be made in determining the transaction price for our sales of intellectual property. Because of the risk that products in development with our partners will not reach development based milestones or receive regulatory approval, we generally recognize any contingent payments that would be due to us upon or after the development milestone or regulatory approval.

Captisol Sales

We recognize revenue when control of Captisol material is transferred to our customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive from our customers in exchange for those products. This process involves identifying the contract with a customer, determining the performance obligations in the contract, determining the contract price, allocating the contract price to the distinct performance obligations in the contract, and recognizing revenue when the performance obligations have been satisfied. A performance obligation is considered distinct from other obligations in a contract when it provides a benefit to the customer either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer and is separately identified in the contract. We consider a performance obligation satisfied once we have transferred control of the product, meaning the customer has the ability to use and obtain the benefit of the Captisol material or intellectual property license right. We recognize revenue for satisfied performance obligations only when we determine there are no uncertainties regarding payment terms or transfer of control. Sales tax and other taxes we collect concurrent with revenue-producing
activities are excluded from revenue. We expense incremental costs of obtaining a contract when incurred if the expected amortization period of the asset that we would have recognized is one year or less or the amount is immaterial. We did not incur any incremental costs of obtaining a contract during the periods reported.

Deferred Revenue

Depending on the terms of the arrangement, we may also defer a portion of the consideration received because we have to satisfy a future obligation. We use an observable price to determine the stand-alone selling price for separate performance obligations or a cost plus margin approach when one is not available. We have elected to recognize the cost for freight and shipping when control over Captisol material has transferred to the customer as an expense in cost of Captisol.
The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in billed accounts receivable, unbilled receivables (contract assets), and customer advances and deposits (contract liabilities) on the condensed consolidated balance sheet. Except for royalty revenue and certain service revenue, we generally receive payment at the point we satisfy our obligation or soon after. Therefore, we do not generally carry a contract asset balance. Any fees billed in advance of being earned are recorded as deferred revenue. During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the amount recognized as revenue that was previously deferred was $0.4 million and $1.3 million, respectively.
Commercial License and Other Economic Rights
Commercial license and other economics rights represent a portfolio of future milestone and royalty payment rights acquired from Selexis in April 2013 and April 2015, CorMatrix in May 2016, Palvella in December 2018 and Dianomi in January 2019. Commercial license rights acquired are accounted for as financial assets and other economic rights are accounted for as funded research and developments as further discussed below.

In May 2017, we entered into a Royalty Agreement with Aziyo pursuant to which we will receive royalties from certain marketed products that Aziyo acquired from CorMatrix. We account for the Aziyo commercial license right as a financial asset, and in accordance with ASC 310, Receivables, we amortize the commercial license right using the effective interest method whereby we forecast expected cash flows over the term of the arrangement to arrive at an annualized effective interest. The annual effective interest associated with the forecasted cash flows from the Royalty Agreement with Aziyo as of March 31, 2020 is 23%. Revenue is calculated by multiplying the carrying value of the commercial license right by the effective interest.

In December 2018, we entered into a development funding and royalties agreement with Palvella. Pursuant to the agreement, we may receive up to $8.0 million of milestone payments upon the achievement by Palvella of certain corporate, financing and regulatory milestones for PTX-022, a product candidate being developed to treat pachyonychia congentia. In addition to the milestone payments, Palvella will pay us tiered royalties from 5.0% to 9.8% based on any aggregate annual worldwide net sales of any PTX-022 products, subject to Palvella’s right to reduce the royalty rates by making payments in certain circumstances. We paid Palvella an upfront payment of $10.0 million, which Palvella is required to use to fund the development of PTX-022. We are not obligated to provide additional funding to Palvella for the development or commercialization of PTX-022. We determined the economic rights related to Palvella should be characterized as a funded research and development arrangement, thus we account for it in accordance with ASC 730-20, Research and Development Arrangements, and reduce our asset as the funds are expended by Palvella. As of March 31, 2020, the fund has been fully expended by Palvella and our cost basis for the asset has been reduced to zero, we will recognize milestones and royalties as revenue when earned.

We recorded a $5.5 million pre-tax reserve for credit losses upon adoption of the new credit losses on January 1, 2020. We estimated the credit losses at the individual asset level by considering the performance against the programs, the company operating performance and the macroeconomic forecast. In addition, we have judgmentally applied credit loss risk factors to the future expected payments with consideration given to the timing of the payment. Given the higher inherent credit risk associated with longer term receivables, we applied a lower risk factor to the earlier years and progressively higher risk factors to the later years. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, we further considered the current and expected future economic and market conditions surrounding novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and recorded an additional $0.5 million reserve for credit losses in other expense, net, in our condensed consolidated statement of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2020 .

See further detail described in Note 1, Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2019 Annual Report.
Share-Based Compensation Share-Based CompensationShare-based compensation expense for awards to employees and non-employee directors is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period until the last tranche vests.
Net Income (loss) Per Share Net Income (loss) Per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is calculated by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share is computed based on the sum of the weighted average number of common shares and potentially dilutive common shares outstanding during the period.

All of the 0.6 million weighted average shares of outstanding equity awards as of March 31, 2020 were anti-dilutive due to the net loss for the three months ended March 31, 2020.

Potentially dilutive common shares consist of shares issuable under 2019 Notes and 2023 Notes, stock options and restricted stock. 2019 Notes and 2023 Notes have a dilutive impact when the average market price of our common stock exceeds the applicable conversion price of the respective notes. It is our intent and policy to settle conversions through combination settlement, which involves payment in cash equal to the principal portion and delivery of shares of common stock for the excess of the conversion value over the principal portion. In addition, after May 22, 2018, the 2019 Notes can only be settled in cash and therefore there has been no further impact on income per share of these notes since then. Potentially dilutive common shares from stock options and restricted stock are determined using the average share price for each period under the treasury stock method. In addition, the following amounts are assumed to be used to repurchase shares: proceeds from exercise of stock options and the average amount of unrecognized compensation expense for the awards. The 2019 Notes were paid off upon the maturity date in August 2019. See Note 4 - Convertible Senior Notes and Note 6 - Stockholders’ Equity.