Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Fair Value Measurements

Fair Value Measurements
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]  
Fair Value Measurements Fair Value Measurements
Assets and Liabilities Measured on a Recurring Basis

The following table presents the hierarchy for our assets and liabilities measured at fair value (in thousands):
March 31, 2020 December 31, 2019
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total
Short-term investments(1)
1,453    619,773    58    621,284    3,073    936,791    125    939,989   
Investment in Viking common stock 28,258    —    —    28,258    48,425    —    —    48,425   
Investment in Viking warrants(2)
4,621    —    —    4,621    9,910    —    —    9,910   
     Total assets $ 34,332    $ 619,773    $ 58    $ 654,163    $ 61,408    $ 936,791    $ 125    $ 998,324   
Crystal contingent liabilities(3)
$ —    $ —    $ 859    $ 859    $ —    $ —    $ 2,659    $ 2,659   
CyDex contingent liabilities —    —    413    413    —    —    348    348   
Metabasis contingent liabilities(4)
—    5,410    —    5,410    —    5,935    —    5,935   
Amounts owed to former licensor 77    —    —    77    75    —    —    75   
     Total liabilities $ 77    $ 5,410    $ 1,272    $ 6,759    $ 75    $ 5,935    $ 3,007    $ 9,017   

1.Short-term investments in marketable debt and equity securities are classified as available-for-sale securities based on management's intentions and are at level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, as these investment securities are valued based upon quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market. Short-term investments in mutual funds are valued at their net asset value (NAV) on the last day of the period. We have classified marketable securities with original maturities of greater than one year as short-term investments based upon our ability and intent to use any and all of those marketable securities to satisfy the liquidity needs of
our current operations. In addition, we have investment in warrants resulting from Seelos Therapeutics Inc. milestone payments that were settled in shares during the first quarter of 2019 and are at level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, based on black scholes value estimated by management on the last day of the period.
2.Investment in warrants, which we received as a result of Viking’s partial repayment of the Viking note receivable and our purchase of Viking common stock and warrants in April 2016, are classified as level 1 as the fair value is determined using quoted market prices in active markets for the same securities. The change of the fair value is recorded in "Gain (loss) from Viking" in our condensed consolidated statement of operations.
3.The fair value of Crystal contingent liabilities was determined using a probability weighted income approach. Most of the contingent payments are based on development or regulatory milestones as defined in the merger agreement with Crystal. The fair value is subjective and is affected by changes in inputs to the valuation model including management’s estimates regarding the timing and probability of achievement of certain developmental and regulatory milestones. Changes in these estimates may materially affect the fair value. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, we paid a $1.8 million contingent liability on development milestones to former Crystal shareholders.
4.In connection with our acquisition of Metabasis in January 2010, we issued Metabasis stockholders four tradable CVRs, one CVR from each of four respective series of CVR, for each Metabasis share. The CVRs entitle Metabasis stockholders to cash payments as frequently as every six months as cash is received by us from proceeds from the sale or partnering of any of the Metabasis drug development programs, among other triggering events. The liability for the CVRs is determined using quoted prices in a market that is not active for the underlying CVR. The carrying amount of the liability may fluctuate significantly based upon quoted market prices and actual amounts paid under the agreements may be materially different than the carrying amount of the liability. Several of the Metabasis drug development programs have been outlicensed to Viking, including VK2809. VK2809 is a novel selective TR-β agonist with potential in multiple indications, including hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemia, NASH, and X-ALD. Under the terms of the agreement with Viking, we may be entitled to up to $375 million of development, regulatory and commercial milestones and tiered royalties on potential future sales including a $10 million payment upon initiation of a Phase 3 clinical trial.

Assets Measured on a Non-Recurring Basis

We apply fair value techniques on a non-recurring basis associated with valuing potential impairment losses related to our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets and long-lived assets.

We evaluate goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets annually for impairment and whenever circumstances occur indicating that goodwill might be impaired. We determine the fair value of our reporting unit based on a combination of inputs, including the market capitalization of Ligand, as well as Level 3 inputs such as discounted cash flows, which are not observable from the market, directly or indirectly. We determine the fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets using the income approach based on Level 3 inputs.
There were no triggering events identified and no indication of impairment of our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets, or long-lived assets during the three months ended March 31, 2020.