Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Fair Value Measurements

Fair Value Measurements
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2019
Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]  
Fair Value Measurements Fair Value Measurements
Assets and Liabilities Measured on a Recurring Basis

The following table presents the hierarchy for our assets and liabilities measured at fair value (in thousands):
September 30, 2019 December 31, 2018
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total
Short-term investments(1)
2,171    872,147    65    874,383    1,326    599,891    —    601,217   
Investment in Viking common stock 41,542    —    —    41,542    46,191    —    —    46,191   
Investment in Viking warrants(2)
8,314    —    —    8,314    9,257    —    —    9,257   
     Total assets $ 52,027    $ 872,147    $ 65    $ 924,239    $ 56,774    $ 599,891    $ —    $ 656,665   
Crystal contingent liabilities(3)
$ —    $ —    $ 1,826    $ 1,826    $ —    $ —    $ 6,477    $ 6,477   
CyDex contingent liabilities —    —    465    465    —    —    514    514   
Metabasis contingent liabilities(4)
—    7,498    —    7,498    —    5,551    —    5,551   
Amounts owed to former licensor 61    —    —    61    199    —    —    199   
     Total liabilities $ 61    $ 7,498    $ 2,291    $ 9,850    $ 199    $ 5,551    $ 6,991    $ 12,741   
1.Short-term investments in marketable debt securities with original maturities greater than 90 days are classified as available-for-sale securities based on management's intentions and are at level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, as these investment securities are valued based upon quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market. We have classified marketable securities with original maturities of greater than one year as short-term investments based upon our ability and intent to use any and all of those marketable securities to satisfy the liquidity needs of our current operations. In addition, we have investment in warrants resulting from Seelos milestone payments that were settled in shares during the first quarter of 2019 and are at level 3 of the fair value hierarchy, based on intrinsic value estimated by management as of September 30, 2019.
2.Investment in warrants, which we received as a result of Viking’s partial repayment of the Viking note receivable and our purchase of Viking common stock and warrants in April 2016, are classified as level 1 as the fair value is determined using quoted market prices in active markets for the same securities. The change of the fair value is recorded in "Gain (loss) from Viking" in our condensed consolidated statement of operations.
3.The fair value of Crystal contingent liabilities was determined using a probability weighted income approach. Most of the contingent payments are based on development or regulatory milestones as defined in the merger agreement with Crystal. The fair value is subjective and is affected by changes in inputs to the valuation model including management’s estimates regarding the timing and probability of achievement of certain developmental and regulatory milestones. During the three months ended September 30, 2019, we paid a $3.0 million contingent liability on development milestones to former Crystal shareholders. At September 30, 2019, most of the development and regulatory milestones were estimated to be highly probable of being achieved by 2019. Changes in these estimates may materially affect the fair value.
4.In connection with our acquisition of Metabasis in January 2010, we issued Metabasis stockholders four tradable CVRs, one CVR from each of four respective series of CVR, for each Metabasis share. The CVRs entitle Metabasis stockholders to cash payments as frequently as every six months as cash is received by us from proceeds from the sale or partnering of any of the Metabasis drug development programs, among other triggering events. The liability for the CVRs is determined using quoted prices in a market that is not active for the underlying CVR. The carrying amount of the liability may fluctuate significantly based upon quoted market prices and actual amounts paid under the agreements may be materially different than the carrying amount of the liability. Several of the Metabasis drug development programs have been outlicensed to Viking, including VK2809. VK2809 is a novel selective TR-β agonist with potential in multiple indications, including hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemia, NASH, and X-ALD. Under the terms of the agreement with Viking, we may be entitled to up to $375 million of development, regulatory and commercial milestones and tiered royalties on potential future sales including a $10 million payment upon initiation of a Phase 3 clinical trial. Another Metabasis drug development program, RVT-1502, has been outlicensed to Metavant. RVT-1502 is a novel, orally-bioavailable, small molecule, glucagon receptor antagonist or “GRA.”

For the first quarter of 2019, we reduced the contingent liabilities associated with Crystal by $1.5 million based on management's estimates of timing and probability of achievement of certain milestones and revenue thresholds. We made $1.0 million and $3.0 million payments to the former shareholders of Crystal during the first quarter of 2018 and third quarter of 2019, respectively. Other than the payments mentioned, there was no significant change to the fair value of Crystal and CyDex during the third quarter of 2019 or 2018.

Assets Measured on a Non-Recurring Basis

We apply fair value techniques on a non-recurring basis associated with valuing potential impairment losses related to our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets and long-lived assets.

We evaluate goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets annually for impairment and whenever circumstances occur indicating that goodwill might be impaired. We determine the fair value of our reporting unit based on a combination of inputs, including the market capitalization of Ligand, as well as Level 3 inputs such as discounted cash flows, which are not observable from the market, directly or indirectly. We determine the fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets using the income approach based on Level 3 inputs.

There were no triggering events identified and no indication of impairment of our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets, or long-lived assets during the nine months ended September 30, 2019. Other than a certain indefinite-lived intangible asset, there were no indication of impairment of our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets, or long-lived assets during the nine months ended September 30, 2018.