Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2019
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation

Our condensed consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of Ligand and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. We have included all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, which we considered necessary for a fair presentation of our financial results. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes should be read together with the audited consolidated financial statements included in our 2018 Annual Report. Interim financial results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year.


Certain amounts in the prior period consolidated financial statements have been reclassified to conform with the current period presentation. Specifically, our investment in Viking warrants was reclassified from “other current assets” to “investment in Viking” in the audited consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2018.

Significant Accounting Policies

We have described our significant accounting policies in Note 1, Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2018 Annual Report. 

Use of Estimates

The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from those estimates.

Accounting Standards Recently Adopted

Leases - In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). This standard requires organizations that lease assets to recognize the assets and liabilities created by those leases. The standard also requires disclosures to help investors and other financial statement users better understand the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. In 2018, the FASB issued guidance that provides an optional transition method for adoption of this standard, which allows organizations to initially apply the new requirements at the effective date, recognize a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings, and continue to apply the legacy guidance in ASC 840, Leases (Topic 840), including its disclosure requirements, in the comparative periods presented. We adopted this standard on January 1, 2019 by applying this optional transition method. For leases with a term of 12 months or less, we elected to not recognize lease assets and lease liabilities and expense the leases over a straight-line basis for the term of those leases. In addition, we elected the available package of practical expedients upon adoption, which allowed us to carry forward our historical assessment of whether existing agreements contained a lease and the classification of our existing operating leases. We did not elect to use the hindsight practical expedient to determine the lease term or evaluate impairment for existing leases. We continue to report our financial position as of December 31, 2018 under Topic 840 in our audited consolidated balance sheet. The adoption of this standards update resulted in the recognition of right-of-use assets of approximately $5.2 million and lease liabilities of approximately $5.9 million on our unaudited condensed consolidated balance as of January 1, 2019, with no material impact to our consolidated statement of operations. See Note 8, Leases, for further information regarding the impact of the adoption of ASU 2016-02 on our financial statements.

Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
Financial Instruments - In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (Topic 326), which amends the impairment model by requiring entities to use a forward-looking approach based on expected losses to estimate credit losses on certain types of financial instruments, including trade receivables and available for sale debt securities. ASU 2016-13 is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of 2020, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this ASU on our consolidated financial statements.

Fair Value Measurement - In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement: Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820), which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements. ASU 2018-13 is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of 2020, with earlier adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this ASU on our consolidated financial statements.

Collaborative Arrangements - In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements: Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606 (Topic 808). The new standard clarifies that certain transactions between participants in a collaborative arrangement should be accounted for under Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, when the counterparty is a customer for a good or service that is a distinct unit of account. The amendments also preclude entities from presenting consideration from transactions with a collaborator that is not a customer together with revenue recognized from contracts with customers. The new standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted in any interim period for entities that have adopted ASC 606. The standard should be applied retrospectively to the period when we initially adopted ASC 606. We are currently evaluating the impact of adopting this ASU on our consolidated financial statements.

We do not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements or disclosures.


Our revenue is generated primarily from royalties on sales of products commercialized by our partners, Captisol material sales, license fees and development, regulatory and sales based milestone payments, and other service revenue.

Royalties, License Fees and Milestones

We receive royalty revenue on sales by our partners of products covered by patents that we own. We do not have future performance obligations under these license arrangements. We generally satisfy our obligation to grant intellectual property rights on the effective date of the contract. However, we apply the royalty recognition constraint required under the guidance for sales-based royalties which requires a sales-based royalty to be recorded no sooner than the underlying sale. Therefore, royalties on sales of products commercialized by our partners are recognized in the quarter the product is sold. Our partners generally report sales information to us on a one quarter lag. Thus, we estimate the expected royalty proceeds based on an analysis of historical experience and interim data provided by our partners including their publicly announced sales. Differences between actual and estimated royalty revenues are adjusted for in the period in which they become known, typically the following quarter.

Our contracts with customers often will include future contingent milestone based payments. We include contingent milestone based payments in the estimated transaction price when there is a basis to reasonably estimate the amount of the payment. These estimates are based on historical experience, anticipated results and our best judgment at the time. If the contingent milestone based payment is sales-based, we apply the royalty recognition constraint and record revenue when the underlying sale has taken place. Significant judgments must be made in determining the transaction price for our sales of intellectual property. Because of the risk that products in development with our partners will not reach development based milestones or receive regulatory approval, we generally recognize any contingent payments that would be due to us upon or after the development milestone or regulatory approval.

Material Sales

We recognize revenue when control of Captisol material or intellectual property license rights is transferred to our customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive from our customers in exchange for those products. This process involves identifying the contract with a customer, determining the performance obligations in the contract, determining the contract price, allocating the contract price to the distinct performance obligations in the contract, and recognizing revenue when the performance obligations have been satisfied. A performance obligation is considered distinct from other obligations in
a contract when it provides a benefit to the customer either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer and is separately identified in the contract. We consider a performance obligation satisfied once we have transferred control of the product, meaning the customer has the ability to use and obtain the benefit of the Captisol material or intellectual property license right. We recognize revenue for satisfied performance obligations only when we determine there are no uncertainties regarding payment terms or transfer of control. Sales tax and other taxes we collect concurrent with revenue-producing activities are excluded from revenue. We expense incremental costs of obtaining a contract when incurred if the expected amortization period of the asset that we would have recognized is one year or less or the amount is immaterial. We did not incur any incremental costs of obtaining a contract during the periods reported.

Depending on the terms of the arrangement, we may also defer a portion of the consideration received because we have to satisfy a future obligation. We use an observable price to determine the stand-alone selling price for separate performance obligations or a cost plus margin approach when one is not available. We have elected to recognize the cost for freight and shipping when control over Captisol material has transferred to the customer as an expense in cost of material sales.

The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in billed accounts receivable, unbilled receivables (contract assets), and customer advances and deposits (contract liabilities) on the Consolidated Balance Sheet. Except for royalty revenue and certain service revenue, we generally receive payment at the point we satisfy our obligation or soon after. Therefore, we do not generally carry a contract asset balance. Any fees billed in advance of being earned are recorded as deferred revenue. During the three months ended March 31, 2019, the amount recognized as revenue that was previously deferred was not material.

Disaggregation of Revenue

The following table represents disaggregation of Royalties, Material Sales and License fees, milestone and other (in thousands):

Three months ended
March 31,
2019 2018
Promacta $ 14,193  $ 15,573 
Kyprolis 3,833  3,262 
Evomela 911  1,600 
Other 601  385 
$ 19,538  $ 20,820 
Material Sales
Captisol $ 8,959  $ 4,391 
License fees, milestones and other
License Fees $ 850  $ 26,955 
Milestone 11,932  2,825 
Other 2,205  1,166 
$ 14,987  $ 30,946 
Total $ 43,484  $ 56,157 
Short-term Investments
Our investments consist of the following at March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 (in thousands):
March 31, 2019 December 31, 2018
Amortized cost Gross unrealized gains Gross unrealized losses Estimated fair value Amortized cost Gross unrealized gains Gross unrealized losses Estimated fair value
Short-term investments
Bank deposits $ 673,988  $ 184  $ (20) $ 674,152  $ 311,066  $ 26  $ (29) $ 311,063 
Corporate bonds 74,875  56  (1) 74,930  53,223  (45) 53,179 
Commercial paper 563,585  60  (112) 563,533  225,731  (76) 225,663 
U.S. Government bonds 3,013  —  (3) 3,010  7,982  —  (9) 7,973 
Municipal bonds —  —  —  —  2,017  —  (4) 2,013 
Corporate equity securities(1)
4,525  2,915  —  7,440  135  1,191  —  1,326 
Warrants —  510  —  510  —  —  —  — 
$ 1,319,986  $ 3,725  $ (136) $ 1,323,575  $ 600,154  $ 1,226  $ (163) $ 601,217 
(1) The amortized cost for corporate equity securities represents the original purchase cost of the equity securities.


Inventory, which consists of finished goods, is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We determine cost using the first-in, first-out method.

Goodwill and Other Identifiable Intangible Assets

Goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets consist of the following (in thousands):
March 31, December 31,
2019 2018
Goodwill $ 86,809  $ 86,646 
Definite lived intangible assets
Complete technology 235,413  235,413 
Less: accumulated amortization (38,169) (35,070)
Trade name 2,642  2,642 
Less: accumulated amortization (1,081) (1,048)
Customer relationships 29,600  29,600 
Less: accumulated amortization (12,115) (11,744)
Total goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets, net $ 303,099  $ 306,439 

Commercial License and Other Economic Rights

Commercial license and other economic rights consist of the following (in thousands):

March 31, December 31,
2019 2018
Aziyo and CorMatrix $ 17,696  $ 17,696 
Palvella 10,000  10,000 
Selexis 8,602  8,602 
Dianomi 2,000  — 
38,298  36,298 
Less: accumulated amortization attributed to principal or research and development (7,275) (4,838)
Total commercial license and other economic rights, net $ 31,023  $ 31,460 
Commercial license and other economics rights represent a portfolio of future milestone and royalty payment rights acquired from Selexis in April 2013 and April 2015, CorMatrix in May 2016, Palvella in December 2018 and Dianomi in January 2019. Commercial license rights acquired are accounted for as financial assets and other economic rights are accounted for as funded research and developments as further discussed below.
In May 2017, we entered into a Royalty Agreement with Aziyo pursuant to which we will receive royalties from certain marketed products that Aziyo acquired from CorMatrix. We account for the Aziyo commercial license right as a financial asset in accordance with ASC 310, Receivables, and amortize the commercial license right using the effective interest method whereby we forecast expected cash flows over the term of the arrangement to arrive at an annualized effective interest. The annual effective interest associated with the forecasted cash flows from the Royalty Agreement with Aziyo as of March 31, 2019 is 23%. Revenue is calculated by multiplying the carrying value of the commercial license right by the effective interest.
In December 2018, we entered into a development funding and royalties agreement with Palvella. Pursuant to the agreement, we may receive up to $8.0 million of milestone payments upon the achievement by Palvella of certain corporate, financing and regulatory milestones for PTX-022, a product candidate being developed to treat pachyonychia congentia. In addition to the milestone payments, Palvella will pay us tiered royalties from 5.0% to 9.8% based on any aggregate annual worldwide net sales of any PTX-022 products, subject to Palvella’s right to reduce the royalty rates by making payments in certain circumstances. We paid Palvella an upfront payment of $10.0 million, which Palvella is required to use to fund the development of PTX-022. We are not obligated to provide additional funding to Palvella for the development or commercialization of PTX-022. We determined the economic rights related to Palvella should be characterized as a funded research and development arrangement, thus we will account for in accordance with ASC 730-20, Research and Development Arrangements, and will reduce our asset as the funds are expended by Palvella. We will evaluate the remaining asset basis for impairment on an ongoing basis. As it is anticipated, prior to the receipt of any payments from Palvella that the cost basis will be reduced to zero, we will recognize milestones and royalties as revenue when earned.

See further detail described in Note 1, Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in our 2018 Annual Report.


Our equity ownership interest in Viking decreased in the first quarter of 2018 to approximately 12.4% due to Viking's financing events in February 2018. As a result, in February 2018, we concluded that we did not exert significant influence over Viking and discontinued accounting for our investment in Viking under the equity method. We also have outstanding warrants to purchase 1.5 million shares of Viking's common stock at an exercise price of $1.50 per share. We recorded the warrants in “investment in Viking” in our condensed consolidated balance sheets at fair value of $12.7 million at March 31, 2019. Our investment in Viking warrants in the amount of $9.3 million was reclassified from “other current assets” to “investment in Viking” in the audited consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2018 to conform to the current period presentation.

Accrued Liabilities

Accrued liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
March 31, December 31,
2019 2018
Compensation $ 2,384  $ 4,045 
Professional fees 1,022  942 
Amounts owed to former licensees 427  428 
Royalties owed to third parties 1,084  1,025 
Payments due to broker for share repurchases —  4,613 
Return reserve 2,813  3,590 
Restructuring 287  1,093 
Current lease liabilities 1,187  — 
Other 5,567  3,464 
 Total accrued liabilities
$ 14,771  $ 19,200 
Share-Based Compensation

Share-based compensation expense for awards to employees and non-employee directors is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period until the last tranche vests. The following table summarizes share-based compensation expense recorded as components of research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses for the periods indicated (in thousands):
Three months ended
March 31,
2019 2018
Share-based compensation expense as a component of:
Research and development expenses $ 2,127  $ 1,767 
General and administrative expenses 3,220  2,788 
$ 5,347  $ 4,555 

The fair-value for options that were awarded to employees and directors was estimated at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option valuation model with the following weighted-average assumptions:
Three months ended
March 31,
2019 2018
Risk-free interest rate 2.5%    2.7%   
Dividend yield —    —   
Expected volatility 44%    33%   
Expected term 5.1 5.7


On May 22, 2018, we amended our 2019 Notes making an irrevocable election to settle the entire note in cash. As a result, we reclassified from equity to derivative liability the fair value of the conversion premium as of May 22, 2018. Amounts paid in excess of the principal amount will be offset by an equal receipt of cash under the corresponding convertible bond hedge. As a result, we reclassified from equity to derivative asset the fair value of the bond hedge as of May 22, 2018. Changes in the fair value of these derivatives are reflected in other expense, net, in our condensed consolidated statements of operations.

The following table summarizes the inputs and assumptions used in the Black-Scholes model to calculate the fair value of the derivative assets and the inputs and assumptions used in the Binomial model to calculate the fair value of the derivative liability associated with the 2019 Notes:

As of March 31, 2019
Common stock price $125.71 
Exercise price, conversion premium and bond hedge $75.05 
Risk-free interest rate 2.46%   
Volatility 35%   
Dividend yield —   
Annual coupon rate 0.75%   
Remaining contractual term (in years) 0.38
Income Per Share

Basic income per share is calculated by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted income per share is computed based on the sum of the weighted average number of common shares and potentially dilutive common shares outstanding during the period.

Potentially dilutive common shares consist of shares issuable under 2019 Notes and 2023 Notes, stock options and restricted stock. 2019 Notes and 2023 Notes have a dilutive impact when the average market price of the Company’s common stock exceeds the applicable conversion price of the respective notes. It is our intent and policy to settle conversions through combination settlement, which involves payment in cash equal to the principal portion and delivery of shares of common stock for the excess of the conversion value over the principal portion. In addition, after May 22, 2018, the 2019 Notes can only be settled in cash and therefore there will have no further impact on income per share of these notes. Potentially dilutive common shares from stock options and restricted stock are determined using the average share price for each period under the treasury stock method. In addition, the following amounts are assumed to be used to repurchase shares: proceeds from exercise of stock options and the average amount of unrecognized compensation expense for the awards.

The following table presents the calculation of weighted average shares used to calculate basic and diluted earnings per share (in thousands):
Three months ended
March 31,
2019 2018
Weighted average shares outstanding: 20,447  21,209 
Dilutive potential common shares:
Restricted stock 45  64 
Stock options 785  1,119 
2019 Convertible Senior Notes —  1,719 
Warrants —  689 
Shares used to compute diluted income per share 21,277  24,800 
Potentially dilutive shares excluded from calculation due to anti-dilutive effect 7,015  148