Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation Basis of PresentationOur condensed consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of Ligand and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. We have included all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, which we considered necessary for a fair presentation of our financial results. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes should be read together with the audited consolidated financial statements included in our 2017 Annual Report. Interim financial results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year.

Certain amounts in the prior period combined financial statements have been reclassified to conform with the current period presentation. See detail in Accounting Standards Recently Adopted subsection below for further information.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates

The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
Accounting Standards Recently Adopted and Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
Accounting Standards Recently Adopted

Revenue Recognition - In May 2014, the FASB issued new guidance related to revenue recognition, ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which outlines a comprehensive revenue recognition model and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance. The new guidance requires a company to recognize revenue upon transfer of goods or services to a customer at an amount that reflects the expected consideration to be received in exchange for those goods or services. ASC 606 defines a five-step approach for recognizing revenue, which may require a company to use more judgment and make more estimates than under the current guidance. We adopted this new standard as of January 1, 2018, by using the modified-retrospective method. See Revenue, Royalties, Licenses Fees and Milestones, Material Sales, and Disaggregation of Revenue subsections below for further information. 

Financial Instruments - In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10), which requires equity investments (other than those accounted for under the equity method or those that result in consolidation) to be measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in net income. We have strategic investments, including Viking, that fall under this guidance update. We have adopted ASU 2016-01 effective January 1, 2018 as a cumulative-effect adjustment and reclassified $2.6 million unrealized gains on equity investments, net of tax, from accumulated other comprehensive income to accumulated deficit on our consolidated balance sheet. Effective January 1, 2018, our results of operations include the changes in fair value of these financial instruments. See Viking subsection below for further information on the Viking investment.

Statement of Cash Flows - In August 2016 the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230), Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. The new standard clarifies certain aspects of the statement of cash flows, and aims to reduce diversity in practice regarding how certain transactions are classified in the statement of cash flows. This standard was effective January 1, 2018. We adopted ASU 2016-15 effective January 1, 2018. We have updated our presentation
of payments to CVR holders and other contingency payments from investing activities to operating activities to conform to the standard and have revised our prior year cash flows accordingly. In addition, in November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230), Restricted Cash. The standard requires that a statement of cash flows explains the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. Therefore, restricted cash should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The new guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017. We adopted this standard retrospectively, effective January 1, 2018 and included restricted cash amount as of September 30, 2018 in the accompanying condensed consolidated statement of cash flows. We did not have any restricted cash as of December 31, 2017.

Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted

Leases - In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). This standard requires organizations that lease assets to recognize the assets and liabilities created by those leases. The standard also will require disclosures to help investors and other financial statement users better understand the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The ASU becomes effective for public companies for fiscal years and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The FASB recently issued guidance that provides an optional transition method for adoption of this standard, which allows organizations to initially apply the new requirements at the effective date, recognize a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings, and continue to apply the legacy guidance in ASC 840, Leases, including its disclosure requirements, in the comparative periods presented. We will adopt this standard in the first quarter of 2019 and plan to apply the optional transition method and may elect to apply optional practical expedients. While we are currently evaluating the impact of this standard, the adoption will result in an increase to our consolidated balance sheet for lease liabilities and right-of-use assets, which we do not expect to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

Financial Instruments - In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (Topic 326), which amends the impairment model by requiring entities to use a forward-looking approach based on expected losses to estimate credit losses on certain types of financial instruments, including trade receivables and available for sale debt securities. ASU 2016-13 is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of 2020, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this ASU on our consolidated financial statements.

Fair Value Measurement - In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement: Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820), which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements. ASU 2018-13 is effective for us beginning in the first quarter of 2020, with earlier adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this ASU on our consolidated financial statements.

We do not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements or disclosures.
Commercial License Rights
Commercial License Rights

Commercial license rights consist of the following (in thousands):

September 30, December 31,
2018 2017
Aziyo and CorMatrix  $ 17,696  $ 17,696 
Selexis  8,602  8,602 
$ 26,298  $ 26,298 
Less: accumulated amortization  (5,364) (6,772)
Total commercial rights, net  $ 20,934  $ 19,526 
Commercial license rights represent a portfolio of future milestone and royalty payment rights acquired from Selexis in April 2013 and April 2015 and CorMatrix in May 2016. Individual commercial license rights acquired are carried at allocated cost and approximate fair value. In May 2017, we entered into a Royalty Agreement with Aziyo pursuant to which we will receive royalties from certain marketed products that Aziyo acquired from CorMatrix. We account for the Aziyo commercial license right as a financial asset in accordance with ASC 310, Receivables, and amortize the commercial license right using the effective interest method whereby we forecast expected cash flows over the term of the arrangement to arrive at an annualized effective interest. The annual effective interest associated with the forecasted cash flows from the Royalty Agreement with Aziyo as of September 30, 2018 is 26%. Revenue is calculated by multiplying the carrying value of the commercial license right by the effective interest.
Stock-Based Compensation Share-Based CompensationShare-based compensation expense for awards to employees and non-employee directors is recognized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period until the last tranche vests.
Income Per Share
Income Per Share

Basic income per share is calculated by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted income per share is computed based on the sum of the weighted average number of common shares and potentially dilutive common shares outstanding during the period.
Potentially dilutive common shares consist of shares issuable under the 2023 Notes, warrants associated with the 2019 Notes and 2023 Notes, stock options and restricted stock. The 2023 Notes have a dilutive impact when the average market price our common stock exceeds the applicable conversion price of the notes. The 2019 Notes were amended to require cash settlement of the conversion premium for conversion notices received after May 22, 2018 and therefore do not have a dilutive impact subsequent to May 22, 2018. The warrants have a dilutive effect to the extent the market price per share of common stock exceeds the applicable exercise price of the warrants. Potentially dilutive common shares from stock options and restricted stock are determined using the average share price for each period under the treasury stock method. In addition, proceeds from exercise of stock options and the average amount of unrecognized compensation expense for restricted stock are assumed to be used to repurchase shares.