Fair Value Measurements
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2018
|Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]|
|Fair Value Measurements||Fair Value Measurements
Assets and Liabilities Measured on a Recurring Basis
The following table presents the hierarchy for our assets and liabilities measured at fair value (in thousands):
1. Investments in equity securities, which we received from Viking and another licensee as upfront and event-based payments, are classified as level 1 as the fair value is determined using quoted market prices in active markets for the same securities. Short-term investments in marketable debt securities with maturities greater than 90 days are classified as available-for-sale securities based on management's intentions and are at level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, as these investment securities are valued based upon quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market.
2. Investment in warrants, which we received as a result of Viking’s partial repayment of the Viking note receivable and our purchase of Viking common stock and warrants in April 2016, are classified as level 1 as the fair value is determined using quoted market prices in active markets for the same securities. The change of the fair value is recorded in Gain (loss) from Viking in our condensed consolidated statement of operations.
3. The fair value of Crystal contingent liabilities was determined using a probability weighted income approach. Most of the contingent payments are based on development or regulatory milestones as defined in the merger agreement with Crystal. The fair value is subjective and is affected by changes in inputs to the valuation model including management’s estimates regarding the timing and probability of achievement of certain developmental and regulatory milestones. At September 30, 2018, most of the development and regulatory milestones were estimated to be highly probable of being achieved between 2018 and 2019. Changes in these estimates may materially affect the fair value.
4. The fair value of the liabilities for CyDex contingent liabilities were determined based on the income approach. To the extent the estimated future income may vary significantly given the long-term nature of the estimate, we utilize a Monte Carlo model. The fair value is subjective and is affected by changes in inputs to the valuation model including management’s estimates of timing and probability of achievement of certain revenue thresholds and developmental and regulatory milestones which may be achieved and affect amounts owed to former license holders.
5. In connection with our acquisition of Metabasis in January 2010, we issued Metabasis stockholders four tradable CVRs, one CVR from each of four respective series of CVR, for each Metabasis share. The CVRs entitle Metabasis stockholders to cash payments as frequently as every six months as cash is received by the Company from proceeds from the sale or partnering of any of the Metabasis drug development programs, among other triggering events. The liability for the CVRs is determined using quoted prices in a market that is not active for the underlying CVR. The carrying amount of the liability may fluctuate significantly based upon quoted market prices and actual amounts paid under the agreements may be materially different than the carrying amount of the liability. Several of the Metabasis drug development programs have been outlicensed to Viking, including VK2809. VK2809 is a novel selective TR-β agonist with potential in multiple indications, including hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemia, NASH, and X-ALD. Under the terms of the agreement with Viking, Ligand may be entitled to up to $375 million of development, regulatory and commercial milestones and tiered royalties on potential future sales including a $10 million payment upon initiation of a Phase 3 clinical trial. Another Metabasis drug development program, RVT-1502, has been outlicensed to Metavant. RVT-1502 is a novel, orally-bioavailable, small molecule, glucagon receptor antagonist or “GRA.” Ligand may be entitled to up to $529 million in milestone payments and royalties.
For the three months ended September 30, 2018, we reduced the contingent liabilities associated with CyDex by $1.1 million based on management's estimates of timing and probability of achievement of certain revenue thresholds, and there was no change to the fair value of the contingent liabilities associated with Crystal. We made $3.8 million payment to the former shareholders of Metabasis and $1.0 million payment to the former shareholders of Crystal during the third quarter and first quarter of 2018, respectively.
Assets Measured on a Non-Recurring Basis
We apply fair value techniques on a non-recurring basis associated with valuing potential impairment losses related to our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets and long-lived assets.
We evaluate goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets annually for impairment and whenever circumstances occur indicating that goodwill might be impaired. We determine the fair value of our reporting unit based on a combination of inputs, including the market capitalization of Ligand, as well as Level 3 inputs such as discounted cash flows, which are not observable from the market, directly or indirectly. We determine the fair value of our indefinite-lived intangible assets using the income approach based on Level 3 inputs.
Other than certain indefinite-lived intangible asset, there were no triggering events identified and no indication of impairment of our goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets, or long-lived assets during the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and September 30, 2017.
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef