Exhibit (a)(1)(ii)

 

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

To Tender Shares of Common Stock

of

PFENEX INC.

at

$12.00 Per Share in Cash

Plus One Non-Transferable Contractual Contingent Value Right For Each Share,

Which Represents the Right to Receive a Contingent Payment of $2.00 Per Share

Upon The Achievement of a Specified Milestone

Pursuant to the Offer to Purchase dated August 31, 2020

by

PELICAN ACQUISITION SUB, INC.

a wholly-owned subsidiary of

LIGAND PHARMACEUTICALS INCORPORATED

 

THE OFFER AND WITHDRAWAL RIGHTS WILL EXPIRE AT MIDNIGHT (NEW YORK CITY TIME) AT THE END OF THE DAY ON TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 29, 2020, UNLESS THE OFFER IS EXTENDED OR EARLIER TERMINATED.

The Depositary for the Tender Offer is:

 

LOGO

 

By hand, express mail, courier or other expedited service:

 

American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC
Operations Center
Attn: Reorganization Department
6201 15th Avenue
Brooklyn, New York 11219

  

By mail:

 

American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC
Operations Center
Attn: Reorganization Department
6201 15th Avenue
Brooklyn, New York 11219

For assistance

Call Toll-Free (877) 248-6417

Delivery of this Letter of Transmittal to an address other than as set forth above will not constitute a valid delivery to the Depositary (as defined below). You must sign this Letter of Transmittal in the appropriate space provided therefor below, with signature guaranteed, if required, and complete the IRS Form W-9 included in this Letter of Transmittal, if required, or an applicable IRS Form W-8, which may be obtained on the IRS website (www.irs.gov). The instructions set forth in this Letter of Transmittal should be read carefully before you tender any of your Shares (as defined below) into the Offer (as defined below).

 


DESCRIPTION OF SHARES TENDERED

 

 

Name(s) and Address(es) of Registered Holder(s)
(Please Fill in, if Blank, Exactly as Name(s)

Appear(s) on Share Certificate(s), if applicable)

 

Shares Tendered
(Attached additional signed list, if necessary)

 

 
     Share Certificate
Number(s)(1)
   

Total Number

of Shares

Represented
by Share

Certification(s)

    Total Number of
Shares Represented
by Book Entry
(Electronic Form
held at American Stock
Transfer & Trust
Company, LLC)
Tendered
    Total Number of
Shares
Tendered(1)
 
                                 
                                 
                                 
                                 
                                 
      Total Shares                          

(1)   Unless otherwise indicated, it will be assumed that all shares represented by any certificate provided are being tendered. See Instruction 4.

    

The Offer is being made to all holders of Shares. The Purchaser (as defined below) is not aware of any jurisdiction in which the making of the Offer or the acceptance thereof would be prohibited by securities, “blue sky” or other valid laws of such jurisdiction. If the Purchaser becomes aware of any U.S. state in which the making of the Offer or the acceptance of Shares pursuant thereto would not be in compliance with an administrative or judicial action taken pursuant to U.S. state statute, it will make a good faith effort to comply with any such law. If, after such good faith effort, it cannot comply with any such law, the Offer will not be made to (nor will tenders be accepted from or on behalf of) the holders of Shares in such state. In those jurisdictions, if any, where applicable laws require that the Offer be made by a licensed broker or dealer, the Offer will be deemed to be made on behalf of the Purchaser by one or more registered brokers or dealers licensed under the laws of such jurisdiction to be designated by the Purchaser.

This Letter of Transmittal is to be used by stockholders of Pfenex Inc. (“Pfenex”), a Delaware corporation (i) if certificates for Shares (“Certificates”) are to be tendered herewith or (ii) if delivery of Shares is to be made by book-entry transfer at American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC (“AST” or “Depositary”). Please note – if you hold your Shares in book-entry form at The Depository Trust Company (“DTC” or the “Book-Entry Transfer Facility”), you are not obligated to submit this Letter of Transmittal but you must (1) submit an Agent’s Message (as defined below) and (2) deliver your Shares into the Depositary’s account at DTC in accordance with the procedures set forth in Section 3 of the Offer to Purchase in order to tender your Shares.

Stockholders whose Share Certificates are not immediately available, or who cannot complete the procedure for book-entry transfer on a timely basis, or who cannot deliver all other required documents to the Depositary prior to the Expiration Date, must tender their Shares according to the guaranteed delivery procedure set forth in Section 3 of the Offer to Purchase in order to participate in the Offer. See Instruction 2.

Delivery of documents to DTC does not constitute delivery to the Depositary.

 

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IF ANY OF THE SHARE CERTIFICATES THAT YOU OWN HAVE BEEN LOST OR DESTROYED,

SEE INSTRUCTION 11 OF THIS LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

 

   CHECK HERE IF YOU HAVE LOST YOUR SHARE CERTIFICATE(S) AND WILL NEED TO OBTAIN REPLACEMENT CERTIFICATE(S). BY CHECKING THIS BOX, YOU UNDERSTAND THAT YOU MUST CONTACT AST. TO OBTAIN INSTRUCTIONS FOR REPLACING LOST CERTIFICATES. SEE INSTRUCTION 11.

   CHECK HERE IF TENDERED SHARES ARE BEING DELIVERED BY BOOK-ENTRY TRANSFER MADE TO AN ACCOUNT MAINTAINED BY THE DEPOSITARY WITH DTC. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING (NOTE THAT ONLY FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS THAT ARE PARTICIPANTS IN THE SYSTEM OF DTC MAY DELIVER SHARES BY BOOK-ENTRY TRANSFER), SUBMIT AN AGENT’S MESSAGE AND DELIVER SHARES INTO THE DEPOSITARY’S ACCOUNT AT DTC IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROCEDURES SET FORTH IN SECTION 3 OF THE OFFER TO PURCHASE:
          Name of Tendering Institution:      
          DTC Account Number:      
          Transaction Code Number:      

 

   PLEASE NOTE — IF YOU HOLD YOUR SHARES IN BOOK-ENTRY FORM AT DTC, YOU ARE NOT OBLIGATED TO SUBMIT THIS LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL BUT YOU MUST (1) SUBMIT AN AGENT’S MESSAGE AND (2) DELIVER YOUR SHARES INTO THE DEPOSITARY’S ACCOUNT AT DTC IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROCEDURES SET FORTH IN SECTION 3 OF THE OFFER TO PURCHASE IN ORDER TO TENDER YOUR SHARES.

   CHECK HERE IF TENDERED SHARES ARE BEING DELIVERED PURSUANT TO A NOTICE OF GUARANTEED DELIVERY PREVIOUSLY SENT TO THE DEPOSITARY AND COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING:
          Name(s) of Tendering Stockholder(s):      
          Window Ticket Number (if any):      
          Date of Execution of Notice of Guaranteed Delivery:      
          Name of Eligible Institution that Guaranteed Delivery:      

 

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NOTE: SIGNATURES MUST BE PROVIDED BELOW.

PLEASE READ ACCOMPANYING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

Ladies and Gentlemen:

The undersigned hereby tenders to Pelican Acquisition Sub, Inc. (the “Purchaser”), a Delaware corporation and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (“Ligand”), a Delaware corporation, the above described shares of common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Shares”), of Pfenex Inc. (“Pfenex”), a Delaware corporation, pursuant to the Purchaser’s offer to purchase all outstanding Shares, at a per Share of $12.00, in cash (the “Cash Amount”), plus one non-transferable contractual contingent value right per Share (each, a “CVR”), which CVR represents the right to receive a contingent payment of $2.00 in cash, without interest, if a specified milestone is achieved (the Cash Amount plus one CVR, collectively the “Offer Price”), in each case less to any applicable withholding taxes (the “Offer”), as set forth in the Offer to Purchase, dated August 31, 2020 (the “Offer to Purchase”), receipt of which is hereby acknowledged, and in this Letter of Transmittal (this “Letter of Transmittal”) which, together with the Offer to Purchase, constitute the “Offer.” The Offer is being made pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated August 10, 2020, by and among Ligand, the Purchaser and Pfenex (as it may be amended, modified or supplemented from time to time in accordance with its terms, the “Merger Agreement”).

The undersigned understands that the Purchaser reserves the right to transfer or assign the right to purchase all or any portion of the Shares tendered pursuant to the Offer in whole or from time to time in part to one or more of the Purchaser’s affiliates, but any such transfer or assignment will not relieve the Purchaser of its obligations under the Offer and will in no way prejudice the undersigned’s right to receive payment for Shares validly tendered and not withdrawn pursuant to the Offer.

Upon the terms and subject to the conditions of the Offer (and if the Offer is extended or amended, the terms and conditions of the Offer as so extended or amended) and subject to, and effective upon, acceptance for payment of Shares validly tendered herewith and not properly withdrawn prior to the Expiration Date in accordance with the terms of the Offer, the undersigned hereby surrenders, sells, assigns and transfers to or upon the order of the Purchaser all right, title and interest in and to all Shares that are being tendered hereby (and any and all dividends, distributions, rights, other Shares or other securities issued or issuable in respect thereof on or after the date hereof (“Distributions”)) with respect to such Shares (and all Distributions), with full power of substitution (such power of attorney being deemed to be an irrevocable power coupled with an interest in the Shares tendered by this Letter of Transmittal), to (i) deliver Certificates for such Shares (and all Distributions) or transfer ownership of such Shares (and any and all Distributions) on the account books maintained by The Depository Trust Company (the “DTC” or the “Book-Entry Transfer Facility”), together, in any such case, with all accompanying evidences of transfer and authenticity, to or upon the order of the Purchaser, (ii) present such Shares (and any and all Distributions) for transfer on the books of Pfenex or, if such Shares are held in book-entry form with American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC in lieu of physical stock certificates, transfer ownership of such Shares (and all Distributions) on the books of Pfenex, and (iii) receive all benefits and otherwise exercise all rights of beneficial ownership of such Shares (and all Distributions), all in accordance with the terms and subject to the conditions of the Offer.

By executing this Letter of Transmittal (or taking action resulting in the delivery of an Agent’s Message), the undersigned hereby irrevocably appoints Matthew Korenberg and Charles Berkman, and any other person designated in writing by the Purchaser as the true and lawful agent, attorney, attorney-in-fact and proxy of the undersigned, each with full power of substitution, (i) to vote such tendered Shares, to the extent permitted by applicable laws and under Pfenex’s certificate of incorporation and bylaws, at any annual or special meeting of Pfenex’s stockholders or any adjournment or postponement thereof or otherwise in such manner as each such attorney-in-fact and proxy or its, his or her substitute shall in its, his or her sole discretion deem proper with respect to, (ii) to execute any written consent with respect to such tendered Shares concerning any matter as each such attorney-in-fact and proxy or his, her or its substitute shall in his, her or its sole discretion deem proper with

 

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respect to, (iii) to deliver such tendered Shares or transfer ownership of such Shares on the books maintained by Pfenex, together, in any such case, with all accompanying evidences of transfer and authenticity to, and (iv) to otherwise act as each such attorney-in-fact and proxy or its, his or her substitute shall in its, his or her sole discretion deem proper with respect to, all Shares (and any and all Distributions) tendered hereby and accepted for payment by the Purchaser. This appointment will be effective if and when, and only to the extent that, the Purchaser accepts such Shares for payment pursuant to the Offer. This power of attorney and proxy are irrevocable and are granted in consideration of the acceptance for payment of such Shares in accordance with the terms of the Offer. Such acceptance for payment shall, without further action, revoke any prior powers of attorney, proxies and consents granted by the undersigned at any time with respect to such Shares (and any and all Distributions), and no subsequent powers of attorney, proxies, consents or revocations may be given by the undersigned with respect thereto (and, if given, will not be deemed effective). The undersigned hereby acknowledges that the Purchaser reserves the right to require that, in order for Shares to be deemed validly tendered, immediately upon the Purchaser’s acceptance for payment of such Shares, the Purchaser or its designees must be able to exercise full voting, consent and other rights with respect to such Shares (and any and all Distributions), including voting at any meeting of Pfenex’s stockholders.

The undersigned hereby represents and warrants that the undersigned has full power and authority to tender, sell, assign and transfer any and all Shares tendered hereby (and all Distributions) and that, when the same are accepted for payment by the Purchaser, the Purchaser will acquire good, marketable and unencumbered title to such Shares (and any and all Distributions), free and clear of all liens, restrictions, charges and encumbrances, and the same will not be subject to any adverse claims. The undersigned hereby represents and warrants that the undersigned is the registered owner of the Shares, or, if applicable, the Certificate(s) have been endorsed to the undersigned in blank or the undersigned is a participant in the Book-Entry Transfer Facility whose name appears on a security position listing as the owner of the Shares. The undersigned will, upon request, execute and deliver any additional documents deemed by the Depositary or the Purchaser to be necessary or desirable to complete the sale, assignment and transfer of any and all Shares tendered hereby (and any and all Distributions) to the Purchaser, all in accordance with the terms of the Offer. In addition, the undersigned shall promptly remit and transfer to the Depositary for the account of the Purchaser all Distributions in respect of any and all Shares tendered hereby, accompanied by appropriate documentation of transfer, and, pending such remittance and transfer or appropriate assurance thereof, the Purchaser shall be entitled to all rights and privileges as owner of each such Distribution and may deduct from the purchase price of Shares tendered hereby the amount or value of such Distribution as determined by the Purchaser in its sole discretion.

The undersigned hereby agrees that all authority herein conferred or agreed to be conferred shall not be affected by, and shall survive, the death or incapacity of the undersigned, and any obligation of the undersigned hereunder shall be binding upon the heirs, executors, administrators, personal representatives, trustees in bankruptcy, successors and assigns of the undersigned. Except as stated in the Offer to Purchase, this tender is irrevocable.

The undersigned hereby acknowledges that delivery of any Certificate shall be effected, and risk of loss and title to such Certificate shall pass, only upon the proper delivery of such Certificate to the Depositary.

The undersigned understands that the valid tender of Shares pursuant to any of the procedures described in the Offer to Purchase and in the Instructions hereto will constitute the undersigned’s acceptance of the terms and conditions of the Offer. The undersigned hereby agrees that the Purchaser’s acceptance for payment of Shares validly tendered according to any of the procedures described in the Offer to Purchase and in the Instructions hereto will constitute a binding agreement between the undersigned and the Purchaser upon the terms and subject to the conditions of the Offer (and if the Offer is extended or amended, the terms and conditions of such extension or amendment). Without limiting the foregoing, the undersigned hereby acknowledges that if the price to be paid in the Offer is amended in accordance with the Merger Agreement (as defined in the Offer to Purchase), the price to be paid to the undersigned will be the amended price despite the fact that a different price is stated in this Letter of Transmittal. The undersigned recognizes that under certain circumstances set forth in the Offer, the Purchaser may not be required to accept for payment any Shares tendered herewith.

 

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The undersigned understands that the CVRs will not be transferable except (i) upon death by will or intestacy; (ii) by instrument to an inter vivos or testamentary trust in which CVRs are passed to beneficiaries upon the death of the trustee; (iii) pursuant to a court order; (iv) by operation of law (including a consolidation or merger) or without consideration in connection with the dissolution, liquidation or termination of any corporation, limited liability company, partnership or other entity; (v) in the case of CVRs payable to a nominee, from a nominee to a beneficial owner (and, if applicable, through an intermediary) or from such nominee to another nominee for the same beneficial owner, in each case, as allowable by DTC; or (vi) in connection with an abandonment to Ligand or any of its affiliates without consideration.

The undersigned hereby acknowledges that the Purchaser reserves the right to transfer or assign its rights and obligations under the Merger Agreement, including the right to purchase Shares tendered in the Offer, to one or more direct or indirect subsidiaries of Parent, but any such transfer or assignment will not relieve the Purchaser of its obligations under the Offer and will in no way prejudice the undersigned’s rights to receive payment for Shares validly tendered and accepted for payment in the Offer.

Unless otherwise indicated under “Special Payment Instructions,” please issue a check for the purchase price of all Shares purchased and, if appropriate, return any Certificates not tendered or accepted for payment in the name(s) of the registered holder(s) appearing under “Description of Shares Tendered.” Similarly, unless otherwise indicated under “Special Delivery Instructions,” please mail the check for the purchase price of all Shares purchased and, if appropriate, return any Certificates not tendered or not accepted for payment (and any accompanying documents, as appropriate) to the address(es) of the registered holder(s) appearing under “Description of Shares Tendered.” In the event that the boxes entitled “Special Payment Instructions” and “Special Delivery Instructions” are both completed, please issue the check for the purchase price of all Shares purchased and, if appropriate, return any Certificates not tendered or not accepted for payment (and any accompanying documents, as appropriate) in the name(s) of, and deliver such check and, if appropriate, return any Certificates (and any accompanying documents, as appropriate) to, the person(s) so indicated. Unless otherwise indicated herein in the box entitled “Special Payment Instructions,” please credit any Shares tendered herewith by book-entry transfer that are not accepted for payment by crediting the account at the Book-Entry Transfer Facility designated above. The undersigned recognizes that the Purchaser has no obligation, pursuant to the “Special Payment Instructions,” to transfer any Shares from the name of the registered holder thereof if the Purchaser does not accept for payment any of the Shares so tendered. Subject to the terms of the CVR Agreement (as defined in the Offer to Purchase), please make all payments regarding the CVRs as directed herein for payment of the Cash Amount and enter in the CVR register to be maintained by the rights agent pursuant to the CVR Agreement the name(s) and address(es) appearing on the cover page of this Letter of Transmittal for each registered holder.

 

 

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SPECIAL PAYMENT INSTRUCTIONS

(See Instructions 1, 5 and 7)

 

To be completed ONLY if the check for the purchase price of Shares accepted for payment and/or Share Certificates not tendered or not accepted for payment are to be issued in the name of someone other than the undersigned.*

 

Issue:    ☐ Check and/or

             ☐ Share Certificates to:

 

Name        
  (Please Print)
Address    
 
(Including Zip Code)
 
(Taxpayer Identification or Social Security No.) (Complete IRS Form W-9 Included Herein or Applicable IRS Form W-8)

*   Requires signature guarantee. See Instruction 1 to this Letter of Transmittal.

SPECIAL DELIVERY INSTRUCTIONS

(See Instructions 1, 5 and 7)

 

To be completed ONLY if the check for the purchase price of Shares accepted for payment and/or Share Certificates not tendered or not accepted for payment are to be mailed to someone other than the undersigned or to the undersigned at an address other than that set forth on this Letter of Transmittal.*

 

Mail:    ☐  Check and/or

             ☐  Share Certificates to:

 

Name        
  (Please Print)
Address    
 
(Including Zip Code)
 
(Taxpayer Identification or Social Security No.) (Complete IRS Form W-9 Included Herein or Applicable IRS Form W-8)

 

*   Requires signature guarantee. See Instruction 1 to this Letter of Transmittal.

 

 

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IMPORTANT

STOCKHOLDER: SIGN HERE

(PLEASE COMPLETE AND RETURN THE IRS FORM W-9 INCLUDED IN THIS LETTER OF

TRANSMITTAL OR AN APPLICABLE IRS FORM W-8)

 

Signature(s) of Holder(s) of Shares:

 

 

Signature(s) of Holder(s) of Shares:

 

 

 

Dated:

   

 

 

Name(s) 

   

 

    

  (Please Print)

 

Capacity (full title)(See Instruction 5) 

   

 

Address 

   
 
(Include Zip Code)

 

Area Code and Telephone No. 

   

 

Tax Identification or Social Security No. (See IRS Form W-9 included  herein)

   

 

Must be signed by registered holder(s) exactly as name(s) appear(s) on the Certificate(s), or in applicable records for Shares held in book-entry form in lieu of physical certificates or on a security position listing or by person(s) authorized to become registered holder(s) by the Certificates and documents transmitted herewith. If signature is by a trustee, executor, administrator, guardian, attorney-in-fact, agent, officer of a corporation or other person acting in a fiduciary or representative capacity, please set forth full title and see Instruction 5.

 

GUARANTEE OF SIGNATURE(S)

(IF REQUIRED — SEE INSTRUCTIONS 1 AND 5)

 

Authorized Signature     

 

Name 

   

 

Name of Firm 

   

 

Address 

   
  (Include Zip Code)

 

Area Code and Telephone No. 

   

 

Dated:                                               

 


 

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INSTRUCTIONS

FORMING PART OF THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THE OFFER

1. Guarantee of Signatures. No signature guarantee is required on this Letter of Transmittal (a) if this Letter of Transmittal is signed by the registered holder(s) (which term, for purposes of this Instruction 1, includes any participant in DTC’s systems whose name(s) appear(s) on a security position listing as the owner(s) of Shares) of Shares tendered herewith, unless such registered holder(s) has completed either the box entitled “Special Payment Instructions” or the box entitled “Special Delivery Instructions” on this Letter of Transmittal or (b) if such Shares are tendered for the account of a financial institution (including most commercial banks, savings and loan associations and brokerage houses) that is a member of or participant in a recognized “Medallion Program” approved by the Securities Transfer Association Inc., including the Security Transfer Agents Medallion Program, the Stock Exchange Medallion Program and the New York Stock Exchange Medallion Signature Program, or any other “eligible guarantor institution,” as such term is defined in Rule 17Ad-15 under the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (each, an “Eligible Institution”). In all other cases, all signatures on this Letter of Transmittal must be guaranteed by an Eligible Institution. See Instruction 5.

2. Requirements of Tender. No alternative, conditional or contingent tenders will be accepted. In order for Shares to be validly tendered pursuant to the Offer, one of the following procedures must be followed:

For Shares held as physical certificates, the Certificates representing tendered Shares, a properly completed and duly executed Letter of Transmittal, together with any required signature guarantees, and any other documents required by this Letter of Transmittal, must be received by the Depositary at one of its addresses set forth on the front page of this Letter of Transmittal before the Expiration Date.

For Shares held in book-entry form at (i) American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC, a properly completed and duly executed Letter of Transmittal, together with any required signature guarantees and any other required documents, must be received by the Depositary at one of its addresses set forth on the front page of this Letter of Transmittal, or (ii) DTC, an Agent’s Message (as defined below) in lieu of this Letter of Transmittal, and any other required documents, must be received by the Depositary at one of its addresses set forth on the front page of this Letter of Transmittal, and, solely in the case of clause (ii), such Shares must be delivered according to the book-entry transfer procedures (as set forth in Section 3 of the Offer to Purchase) and a timely confirmation (a “Book-Entry Confirmation”) of a book-entry transfer of Shares into the Depositary’s account at DTC must be received by the Depositary, in each case before the Expiration Date.

Stockholders whose Certificates are not immediately available, or who cannot complete the procedure for delivery by book-entry transfer on a timely basis or who cannot deliver all other required documents to the Depositary prior to the Expiration Date, may tender their Shares by properly completing and duly executing a Notice of Guaranteed Delivery pursuant to the guaranteed delivery procedure set forth in Section 3 of the Offer to Purchase. Pursuant to such procedure: (i) such tender must be made by or through an Eligible Institution, (ii) a properly completed and duly executed notice of guaranteed delivery (a “Notice of Guaranteed Delivery”), substantially in the form made available by Purchaser, must be received by the Depositary prior to the Expiration Date and (iii) the Certificates (or a Book-Entry Confirmation) evidencing all tendered Shares, in proper form for transfer, in each case together with this Letter of Transmittal, properly completed and duly executed, together with any required signature guarantees, or, in the case of book-entry transfers of Shares, either this Letter of Transmittal or an Agent’s Message in lieu of this Letter of Transmittal, and any other documents required by this Letter of Transmittal, must be received by the Depositary within two New York Stock Exchange trading days after the date of execution of such Notice of Guaranteed Delivery. A Notice of Guaranteed Delivery may be delivered by overnight courier or mailed to the Depositary and must include a guarantee by an Eligible Institution in the form set forth in the form of Notice of Guaranteed Delivery made available by Purchaser. In the case of Shares held through DTC, the Notice of Guaranteed Delivery must be delivered to the Depositary by a participant by means of the confirmation system of DTC.

 

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The term “Agent’s Message” means a message transmitted by the Book-Entry Transfer Facility to, and received by, the Depositary and forming part of a Book-Entry Confirmation that states that the Book-Entry Transfer Facility has received an express acknowledgment from the participant in DTC tendering the Shares that are the subject of such Book-Entry Confirmation that such participant has received and agrees to be bound by the terms of this Letter of Transmittal and that the Purchaser may enforce such agreement against the participant.

The method of delivery of Shares, this Letter of Transmittal and all other required documents, including delivery through DTC, is at the election and risk of the tendering stockholder. Shares will be deemed delivered (and the risk of loss of Certificates will pass) only when actually received by the Depositary (including, in the case of a book-entry transfer through DTC, by Book-Entry Confirmation). If delivery is by mail, then registered mail with return receipt requested, properly insured, is recommended. In all cases, sufficient time should be allowed to ensure timely delivery.

By executing this Letter of Transmittal, the tendering stockholder waives any right to receive any notice of the acceptance for payment of Shares.

3. Inadequate Space. If the space provided herein is inadequate, Certificate numbers, the number of Shares represented by such Certificates and/or the number of Shares tendered should be listed on a signed separate schedule attached hereto.

4. Partial Tenders (Not Applicable to Stockholders Who Tender by Book-Entry Transfer). If fewer than all Shares represented by any Certificate delivered to the Depositary are to be tendered, fill in the number of Shares that are to be tendered in the box entitled “Total Number of Shares Tendered.” In such case, a new certificate for the remainder of Shares represented by the old certificate will be sent to the person(s) signing this Letter of Transmittal, unless otherwise provided in the appropriate box on this Letter of Transmittal, as soon as practicable following the expiration or termination of the Offer. All Shares represented by Certificates delivered to the Depositary will be deemed to have been tendered unless otherwise indicated.

5. Signatures on Letter of Transmittal; Stock Powers and Endorsements.

(a) Exact Signatures. If this Letter of Transmittal is signed by the registered holder(s) of Shares tendered hereby, then the signature(s) must correspond with, as applicable, the name(s) as written on the face of Certificates for such Shares without alteration, enlargement or any change whatsoever or in the applicable records for Shares held in book-entry form in lieu of physical certificates.

(b) Holders. If any Shares tendered hereby are held of record by two or more persons, then all such persons must sign this Letter of Transmittal.

(c) Different Names on Share Certificates. If any Shares tendered hereby are registered in different names, then it will be necessary to complete, sign and submit as many separate Letters of Transmittal as there are different registrations.

(d) Endorsements. If this Letter of Transmittal is signed by the registered holder(s) of Shares tendered hereby, then no endorsements of Certificates for such Shares or separate stock powers are required unless payment of the purchase price is to be made, or Shares not tendered or not purchased are to be returned, in the name of any person other than the registered holder(s). Signatures on any such Certificates or stock powers must be guaranteed by an Eligible Institution. See Instruction 1.

If this Letter of Transmittal is signed by a person other than the registered holder(s) of Shares tendered hereby, then, if applicable, Certificates for such Shares must be endorsed or accompanied by appropriate stock powers, in either case, signed exactly as the name(s) of the registered holder(s) appear(s) on such Certificates for such Shares. Signature(s) on any such Certificates or stock powers must be guaranteed by an Eligible Institution. See Instruction 1.

 

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If this Letter of Transmittal or any Certificate or stock power is signed by a trustee, executor, administrator, guardian, attorney-in-fact, officer of a corporation or other legal entity or other person acting in a fiduciary or representative capacity, then such person should so indicate when signing, and proper evidence satisfactory to the Depositary of the authority of such person so to act must be submitted. Proper evidence of authority includes a power of attorney, a letter testamentary or a letter of appointment.

6. Stock Transfer Taxes. If payment of the purchase price is to be made to, or if Certificate(s) for Shares not tendered or not accepted for payment are to be registered in the name of, any person(s) other than the registered holder(s), or if tendered Certificate(s) are registered in the name of any person(s) other than the person(s) signing this Letter of Transmittal or if a transfer tax is imposed for any reason other than the transfer and sale of Shares to the Purchaser pursuant to the Offer, then the amount of any stock transfer taxes or other taxes (in each case whether imposed on the registered holder(s) or such other person(s)) then satisfactory evidence of the payment of such taxes, or exemption therefrom, must be submitted herewith.

7. Special Payment and Delivery Instructions. If a check is to be issued for the purchase price of any Shares tendered by this Letter of Transmittal in the name of, and, if appropriate, Certificates for Shares not tendered or not accepted for payment are to be issued to, any person(s) other than the signer of this Letter of Transmittal or if a check and, if appropriate, such Certificates are to be returned to any person(s) other than the person(s) signing this Letter of Transmittal or to an address other than that shown in this Letter of Transmittal, then the appropriate boxes on this Letter of Transmittal must be completed.

8. Backup Withholding. To avoid backup withholding, each tendering stockholder is generally required to provide the depositary with a correct Taxpayer Identification Number (“TIN”) and certain other information on an IRS Form W-9, or provide an appropriate IRS Form W-8 (along with any required attachments thereto), as described below under “Important Tax Information.”

9. Irregularities. All questions as to the validity, form, eligibility (including time of receipt) and acceptance for payment of any tender of Shares will be determined by the Purchaser in its sole discretion. The Purchaser reserves the absolute right to reject any and all tenders determined by it not to be in proper form or the acceptance for payment of which may, in the opinion of its counsel, be unlawful. The Purchaser also reserves the absolute right to waive any of the conditions to the Offer (other than the Minimum Condition (as defined in the Offer to Purchase) and the Required Governmental Approvals (as defined in the Offer to Purchase), which may only be waived with the consent of Pfenex) and any defect or irregularity in the tender of any Shares of any particular stockholder, whether or not similar defects or irregularities are waived in the case of other stockholders. No tender of Shares will be deemed to have been validly made until all defects and irregularities have been cured or waived to the satisfaction of the Purchaser. Unless waived, any defects or irregularities in connection with tenders must be cured within such time as the Purchaser shall determine. None of the Purchaser, the Depositary, or the Information Agent or any other person will be under any duty to give notification of any defects or irregularities in tenders or incur any liability for failure to give any such notification. The Purchaser’s interpretation of the terms and conditions of the Offer (including this Letter of Transmittal and the instructions hereto) will be determined by the Purchaser in its sole discretion.

10. Questions and Requests for Additional Copies. The Information Agent may be contacted at its address and telephone number set forth on the last page of this Letter of Transmittal for questions and/or requests for additional copies of the Offer to Purchase, this Letter of Transmittal, the Notice of Guaranteed Delivery and other tender offer materials. You may also contact your broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee for assistance. Such copies will be furnished promptly at the Purchaser’s expense.

11. Lost, Destroyed or Stolen Certificates. If any Certificate representing Shares has been lost, destroyed or stolen, then the stockholder should promptly notify American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC, as transfer agent (the “Transfer Agent”), at (877) 248-6417, regarding the requirements for replacement. The stockholder will then be instructed as to the steps that must be taken in order to replace such Certificate(s). You may be

 

11


required to post a bond to secure against the risk that the Certificate(s) may be subsequently presented. You are urged to contact the Transfer Agent immediately in order to receive further instructions and for a determination of whether you will need to post a bond and to permit timely processing of this documentation. This Letter of Transmittal and related documents cannot be processed until the procedures for replacing lost, destroyed or stolen Certificates have been followed.

This Letter of Transmittal, properly completed and duly executed, with any required signature guarantees, and any other documents required by this Letter of Transmittal, including, if applicable Certificates evidencing tendered Shares, must be received before the Expiration Date, unless you hold your Shares in book-entry form at DTC. If you hold your Shares in book-entry form at DTC, an Agent’s Message in lieu of this Letter of Transmittal and any other required documents must be received before the Expiration Date, or the tendering stockholder must comply with the procedures for guaranteed delivery.

IMPORTANT TAX INFORMATION

Under U.S. federal income tax laws, unless certain certification requirements are met, the Depositary generally will be required to withhold at the applicable backup withholding rate from any payments made to certain stockholders pursuant to the Offer. To prevent backup withholding on payments that are made to a stockholder that is a United States person (as defined in the instructions to the enclosed IRS Form W-9) with respect to Shares purchased pursuant to the Offer, the stockholder is required to notify the Depositary of the stockholder’s correct Taxpayer Identification Number (“TIN”) by completing the IRS Form W-9 included in this Letter of Transmittal certifying that (1) the TIN provided on the IRS Form W-9 is correct (or that such stockholder is awaiting a TIN), (2) the stockholder is not subject to backup withholding because (i) the stockholder is exempt from backup withholding, (ii) the stockholder has not been notified by the IRS that the stockholder is subject to backup withholding or (iii) the IRS has notified the stockholder that the stockholder is no longer subject to backup withholding, and (3) the stockholder is a United States person (as defined in the instructions to the enclosed IRS Form W-9).

Certain stockholders (including, among others, corporations and certain foreign individuals) are generally exempt from backup withholding and reporting requirements. To prevent possible erroneous backup withholding, an exempt stockholder who is a United States person (as defined in the instructions to the enclosed IRS Form W-9) should indicate their exempt status on a properly completed IRS Form W-9 by providing the appropriate exempt payee code. See the instructions enclosed with the IRS Form W-9 included in this Letter of Transmittal for additional instructions. In order for an exempt non-U.S. stockholder to avoid backup withholding, such person should submit a properly completed IRS Form W-8BEN, IRS Form W-8BEN-E or other appropriate IRS Form W-8 (along with any required attachments thereto) signed under penalties of perjury, attesting to their exempt status. A non-U.S. stockholder should consult a tax advisor to determine which IRS Form W-8 is appropriate. IRS Forms W-8 can be obtained from the Depositary or the IRS website (www.irs.gov). Entities or arrangements treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes holding Shares should consult their tax advisors regarding their treatment for purposes of these instructions.

Failure to accurately complete the IRS Form W-9 or to provide an IRS Form W-8 (along with any required attachments thereto) or an accurate basis for exemption from backup withholding will not, by itself, cause Shares to be deemed invalidly tendered but may result in a delay in the processing of any payments and/or cause the stockholder or payee to be subject to a $50 penalty imposed by the IRS (as well as other civil and criminal penalties) and may require the Depositary to withhold and pay over to the IRS a portion of any payment made to a stockholder (or other payee) pursuant to this Offer at the applicable backup withholding rate (currently, 24%). Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Rather, the U.S. federal income tax liability of persons subject to backup withholding will be reduced by the amount of tax withheld. If backup withholding results in an overpayment of taxes, a refund may be obtained from the IRS if required information is timely furnished to the

 

12


IRS. Each tendering stockholder should consult with a tax advisor regarding (i) qualifications for exemption from backup withholding, (ii) the procedure for obtaining the exemption and (iii) the applicable backup withholding rate.

What Number to Give the Depositary

This section is applicable only to stockholders that are United States persons (as defined in the instructions to the enclosed IRS Form W-9). The tendering stockholder is required to give the Depositary the TIN, generally the Social Security number or employer identification number, of the record holder of all Shares tendered hereby. If such Shares are in more than one name or are not in the name of the actual owner, consult the instructions enclosed with the IRS Form W-9 included in this Letter of Transmittal for additional guidance on which number to report. If the tendering stockholder has not been issued a TIN, such tendering stockholder should consult the instructions enclosed with the IRS Form W-9 included in this Letter of Transmittal for instructions on applying for a TIN and should apply for and receive a TIN prior to submitting the IRS Form W-9. If the Depositary is provided with an incorrect TIN in connection with such payments, then the stockholder may be subject to a $50 penalty imposed by the IRS.

NOTE: FAILURE TO COMPLETE AND RETURN THE IRS FORM W-9 INCLUDED IN THIS LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL OR AN APPLICABLE IRS FORM W-8 MAY RESULT IN A DELAY IN PROCESSING OF ANY PAYMENTS AND/OR RESULT IN BACKUP WITHHOLDING AT THE APPLICABLE WITHHOLDING RATE OF A PORTION OF ANY PAYMENTS MADE TO YOU PURSUANT TO THE OFFER. PLEASE REVIEW THE INSTRUCTIONS ENCLOSED WITH THE IRS FORM W-9 INCLUDED IN THIS LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL OR THE INSTRUCTIONS IN RESPECT OF AN APPLICABLE IRS FORM W-8 FOR ADDITIONAL DETAILS.

 

13


PAYER’S NAME:     COMPUTERSHARE TRUST COMPANY, N.A.

 

Form  W-9

 

(Rev. October 2018)

Department of the Treasury

Internal Revenue Service

 

Request for Taxpayer

Identification Number and Certification

 

u Go to www.irs.gov/FormW9 for instructions and the latest information.

 

Give Form to the

requester. Do not

send to the IRS.

 

Print or type.

See

Specific Instructions

on page 3.

 

 

 

 1  Name (as shown on your income tax return). Name is required on this line; do not leave this line blank.

 

    
 

 

 2  Business name/disregarded entity name, if different from above

 

                        
 

 3  Check appropriate box for federal tax classification of the person whose name is entered on line 1. Check only one of the
following seven boxes.

 

     

Exemptions (codes apply only to
certain entities, not individuals; see
instructions on page 3):

 

Exempt payee code (if any)                     

 

Exemption from FATCA reporting

code (if any)                                     

 

(Applies to accounts maintained outside the U.S.)

 

    Individual/sole proprietor or
       single-member LLC    

 

    C Corporation         S Corporation         Partnership         Trust/estate        
 

Limited liability company. Enter the tax classification (C=C corporation, S=S corporation, P=Partnership) u                                    

 

Note: Check the appropriate box in the line above for the tax classification of the single-member owner. Do not check LLC
if the LLC is classified as a single-member LLC that is disregarded from the owner unless the owner of the LLC is another
LLC that is not disregarded from the owner for U.S. federal tax purposes. Otherwise, a single-member LLC that is
disregarded from the owner should check the appropriate box for the tax classification of its owner.

 

Other (see instructions) u

 

 

   
 

 

 5  Address (number, street, and apt. or suite no.) See instructions.

 

      

 

  Requester’s name and address (optional)

 

 

 6  City, state, and ZIP code

 

         
    

 

 7  List account number(s) here (optional)

 

                    

 

 

Part I

    

 

 

Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN)

Enter your TIN in the appropriate box. The TIN provided must match the name given on line 1 to avoid backup withholding. For individuals, this is generally your social security number (SSN). However, for a resident alien, sole proprietor, or disregarded entity, see the instructions for Part I, later. For other entities, it is your employer identification number (EIN). If you do not have a number, see How to get a TIN, later.

 

 

    

 

 

 

Social security number

 

                     
             

-  

          -                  
  or
Note: If the account is in more than one name, see the instructions for line 1. Also see What Name and Number To Give the Requester for guidelines on whose number to enter.    

 

Employer identification number

     
                       
               

-  

                             
Part II      Certification

Under penalties of perjury, I certify that:

 

1.   The number shown on this form is my correct taxpayer identification number (or I am waiting for a number to be issued to me); and

 

2.   I am not subject to backup withholding because: (a) I am exempt from backup withholding, or (b) I have not been notified by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) that I am subject to backup withholding as a result of a failure to report all interest or dividends, or (c) the IRS has notified me that I am no longer subject to backup withholding; and

 

3.   I am a U.S. citizen or other U.S. person (defined below); and

 

4.   The FATCA code(s) entered on this form (if any) indicating that I am exempt from FATCA reporting is correct.

Certification instructions. You must cross out item 2 above if you have been notified by the IRS that you are currently subject to backup withholding because you have failed to report all interest and dividends on your tax return. For real estate transactions, item 2 does not apply. For mortgage interest paid, acquisition or abandonment of secured property, cancellation of debt, contributions to an individual retirement arrangement (IRA), and generally, payments other than interest and dividends, you are not required to sign the certification, but you must provide your correct TIN. See the instructions for Part II, later.

 

Sign
Here
      Signature of
    U.S. person  
u
     Date   u

 

General Instructions

Section references are to the Internal Revenue Code unless otherwise noted.

Future developments. For the latest information about developments related to Form W-9 and its instructions, such as legislation enacted after they were published, go to www.irs.gov/FormW9.

Purpose of Form

An individual or entity (Form W-9 requester) who is required to file an information return with the IRS must obtain your correct taxpayer identification number (TIN) which may be your social security number (SSN), individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN), adoption taxpayer identification number (ATIN), or employer identification number (EIN), to report on an information return the amount paid to you, or other amount reportable on an information return. Examples of information returns include, but are not limited to, the following.

• Form 1099-INT (interest earned or paid)

• Form 1099-DIV (dividends, including those from stocks or mutual funds)

• Form 1099-MISC (various types of income, prizes, awards, or gross proceeds)

• Form 1099-B (stock or mutual fund sales and certain other transactions by brokers)

• Form 1099-S (proceeds from real estate transactions)

• Form 1099-K (merchant card and third party network transactions)

• Form 1098 (home mortgage interest), 1098-E (student loan interest), 1098-T (tuition)

• Form 1099-C (canceled debt)

• Form 1099-A (acquisition or abandonment of secured property)

Use Form W-9 only if you are a U.S. person (including a resident alien), to provide your correct TIN.

If you do not return Form W-9 to the requester with a TIN, you might be subject to backup withholding. See What is backup withholding, later.

 

 

     
  Cat. No. 10231X  

Form W-9 (Rev. 10-2018)


Form W-9 (Rev. 10-2018)

Page 2

 

 

By signing the filled-out form, you:

1. Certify that the TIN you are giving is correct (or you are waiting for a number to be issued),

2. Certify that you are not subject to backup withholding, or

3. Claim exemption from backup withholding if you are a U.S. exempt payee. If applicable, you are also certifying that as a U.S. person, your allocable share of any partnership income from a U.S. trade or business is not subject to the withholding tax on foreign partners’ share of effectively connected income, and

4. Certify that FATCA code(s) entered on this form (if any) indicating that you are exempt from the FATCA reporting, is correct. See What is FATCA reporting, later, for further information.

Note: If you are a U.S. person and a requester gives you a form other than Form W-9 to request your TIN, you must use the requester’s form if it is substantially similar to this Form W-9.

Definition of a U.S. person. For federal tax purposes, you are considered a U.S. person if you are:

• An individual who is a U.S. citizen or U.S. resident alien;

• A partnership, corporation, company, or association created or organized in the United States or under the laws of the United States;

• An estate (other than a foreign estate); or

• A domestic trust (as defined in Regulations section 301.7701-7).

Special rules for partnerships. Partnerships that conduct a trade or business in the United States are generally required to pay a withholding tax under section 1446 on any foreign partners’ share of effectively connected taxable income from such business. Further, in certain cases where a Form W-9 has not been received, the rules under section 1446 require a partnership to presume that a partner is a foreign person, and pay the section 1446 withholding tax. Therefore, if you are a U.S. person that is a partner in a partnership conducting a trade or business in the United States, provide Form W-9 to the partnership to establish your U.S. status and avoid section 1446 withholding on your share of partnership income.

In the cases below, the following person must give Form W-9 to the partnership for purposes of establishing its U.S. status and avoiding withholding on its allocable share of net income from the partnership conducting a trade or business in the United States.

• In the case of a disregarded entity with a U.S. owner, the U.S. owner of the disregarded entity and not the entity;

• In the case of a grantor trust with a U.S. grantor or other U.S. owner, generally, the U.S. grantor or other U.S. owner of the grantor trust and not the trust; and

• In the case of a U.S. trust (other than a grantor trust), the U.S. trust (other than a grantor trust) and not the beneficiaries of the trust.

Foreign person. If you are a foreign person or the U.S. branch of a foreign bank that has elected to be treated as a U.S. person, do not use Form W-9. Instead, use the appropriate Form W-8 or Form 8233 (see Pub. 515, Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Entities).

Nonresident alien who becomes a resident alien. Generally, only a nonresident alien individual may use the terms of a tax treaty to reduce or eliminate U.S. tax on certain types of income. However, most tax treaties contain a provision known as a “saving clause.” Exceptions specified in the saving clause may permit an exemption from tax to continue for certain types of income even after the payee has otherwise become a U.S. resident alien for tax purposes.

If you are a U.S. resident alien who is relying on an exception contained in the saving clause of a tax treaty to claim an exemption from U.S. tax on certain types of income, you must attach a statement to Form W-9 that specifies the following five items.

1. The treaty country. Generally, this must be the same treaty under which you claimed exemption from tax as a nonresident alien.

2. The treaty article addressing the income.

3. The article number (or location) in the tax treaty that contains the saving clause and its exceptions.

4. The type and amount of income that qualifies for the exemption from tax.

5. Sufficient facts to justify the exemption from tax under the terms of the treaty article.

Example. Article 20 of the U.S.-China income tax treaty allows an exemption from tax for scholarship income received by a Chinese student temporarily present in the United States. Under U.S. law, this student will

become a resident alien for tax purposes if his or her stay in the United States exceeds 5 calendar years. However, paragraph 2 of the first Protocol to the U.S.-China treaty (dated April 30, 1984) allows the provisions of Article 20 to continue to apply even after the Chinese student becomes a resident alien of the United States. A Chinese student who qualifies for this exception (under paragraph 2 of the first protocol) and is relying on this exception to claim an exemption from tax on his or her scholarship or fellowship income would attach to Form W-9 a statement that includes the information described above to support that exemption.

If you are a nonresident alien or a foreign entity, give the requester the appropriate completed Form W-8 or Form 8233.

Backup Withholding

What is backup withholding? Persons making certain payments to you must under certain conditions withhold and pay to the IRS 24% of such payments. This is called “backup withholding.” Payments that may be subject to backup withholding include interest, tax-exempt interest, dividends, broker and barter exchange transactions, rents, royalties, nonemployee pay, payments made in settlement of payment card and third party network transactions, and certain payments from fishing boat operators. Real estate transactions are not subject to backup withholding.

You will not be subject to backup withholding on payments you receive if you give the requester your correct TIN, make the proper certifications, and report all your taxable interest and dividends on your tax return.

Payments you receive will be subject to backup withholding if:

1. You do not furnish your TIN to the requester,

2. You do not certify your TIN when required (see the instructions for Part II for details),

3. The IRS tells the requester that you furnished an incorrect TIN,

4. The IRS tells you that you are subject to backup withholding because you did not report all your interest and dividends on your tax return (for reportable interest and dividends only), or

5. You do not certify to the requester that you are not subject to backup withholding under 4 above (for reportable interest and dividend accounts opened after 1983 only).

Certain payees and payments are exempt from backup withholding. See Exempt payee code, later, and the separate Instructions for the Requester of Form W-9 for more information.

Also see Special rules for partnerships, earlier.

What is FATCA Reporting?

The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) requires a participating foreign financial institution to report all United States account holders that are specified United States persons. Certain payees are exempt from FATCA reporting. See Exemption from FATCA reporting code, later, and the Instructions for the Requester of Form W-9 for more information.

Updating Your Information

You must provide updated information to any person to whom you claimed to be an exempt payee if you are no longer an exempt payee and anticipate receiving reportable payments in the future from this person. For example, you may need to provide updated information if you are a C corporation that elects to be an S corporation, or if you no longer are tax exempt. In addition, you must furnish a new Form W-9 if the name or TIN changes for the account; for example, if the grantor of a grantor trust dies.

Penalties

Failure to furnish TIN. If you fail to furnish your correct TIN to a requester, you are subject to a penalty of $50 for each such failure unless your failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect.

Civil penalty for false information with respect to withholding. If you make a false statement with no reasonable basis that results in no backup withholding, you are subject to a $500 penalty.

Criminal penalty for falsifying information. Willfully falsifying certifications or affirmations may subject you to criminal penalties including fines and/or imprisonment.

Misuse of TINs. If the requester discloses or uses TINs in violation of federal law, the requester may be subject to civil and criminal penalties.

 


Form W-9 (Rev. 10-2018)

Page 3

 

 

Specific Instructions

Line 1

You must enter one of the following on this line; do not leave this line blank. The name should match the name on your tax return.

If this Form W-9 is for a joint account (other than an account maintained by a foreign financial institution (FFI)), list first, and then circle, the name of the person or entity whose number you entered in Part I of Form W-9. If you are providing Form W-9 to an FFI to document a joint account, each holder of the account that is a U.S. person must provide a Form W-9.

a. Individual. Generally, enter the name shown on your tax return. If you have changed your last name without informing the Social Security Administration (SSA) of the name change, enter your first name, the last name as shown on your social security card, and your new last name.

Note: ITIN applicant: Enter your individual name as it was entered on your Form W-7 application, line 1a. This should also be the same as the name you entered on the Form 1040/1040A/1040EZ you filed with your application.

b. Sole proprietor or single-member LLC. Enter your individual name as shown on your 1040/1040A/1040EZ on line 1. You may enter your business, trade, or “doing business as” (DBA) name on line 2.

c. Partnership, LLC that is not a single-member LLC, C corporation, or S corporation. Enter the entity’s name as shown on the entity’s tax return on line 1 and any business, trade, or DBA name on line 2.

d. Other entities. Enter your name as shown on required U.S. federal tax documents on line 1. This name should match the name shown on the charter or other legal document creating the entity. You may enter any business, trade, or DBA name on line 2.

e. Disregarded entity. For U.S. federal tax purposes, an entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner is treated as a “disregarded entity.” See Regulations section 301.7701-2(c)(2)(iii). Enter the owner’s name on line 1. The name of the entity entered on line 1 should never be a disregarded entity. The name on line 1 should be the name shown on the income tax return on which the income should be reported. For example, if a foreign LLC that is treated as a disregarded entity for U.S. federal tax purposes has a single owner that is a U.S. person, the U.S. owner's name is required to be provided on line 1. If the direct owner of the entity is also a disregarded entity, enter the first owner that is not disregarded for federal tax purposes. Enter the disregarded entity's name on line 2, “Business name/disregarded entity name.” If the owner of the disregarded entity is a foreign person, the owner must complete an appropriate Form W-8 instead of a Form W-9. This is the case even if the foreign person has a U.S. TIN.

Line 2

If you have a business name, trade name, DBA name, or disregarded entity name, you may enter it on line 2.

Line 3

Check the appropriate box on line 3 for the U.S. federal tax classification of the person whose name is entered on line 1. Check only one box on line 3.

 

   

IF the entity/person on line 1 is

a(n) . . .

  THEN check the box for . . .
  • Corporation   Corporation
 

• Individual

 

• Sole proprietorship, or

 

• Single-member limited liability company (LLC) owned by an individual and disregarded for U.S. federal tax purposes.

  Individual/sole proprietor or single-member LLC
 

• LLC treated as a partnership for U.S. federal tax purposes,

 

• LLC that has filed Form 8832 or 2553 to be taxed as a corporation, or

 

• LLC that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner but the owner is another LLC that is not disregarded for U.S. federal tax purposes.

  Limited liability company and enter the appropriate tax classification. (P= Partnership; C= C corporation; or S= S corporation)
  • Partnership   Partnership
  • Trust/estate   Trust/estate

Line 4, Exemptions

If you are exempt from backup withholding and/or FATCA reporting, enter in the appropriate space on line 4 any code(s) that may apply to you.

Exempt payee code.

•  Generally, individuals (including sole proprietors) are not exempt from backup withholding.

•  Except as provided below, corporations are exempt from backup withholding for certain payments, including interest and dividends.

•  Corporations are not exempt from backup withholding for payments made in settlement of payment card or third party network transactions.

•  Corporations are not exempt from backup withholding with respect to attorneys’ fees or gross proceeds paid to attorneys, and corporations that provide medical or health care services are not exempt with respect to payments reportable on Form 1099-MISC.

The following codes identify payees that are exempt from backup withholding. Enter the appropriate code in the space in line 4.

1—An organization exempt from tax under section 501(a), any IRA, or a custodial account under section 403(b)(7) if the account satisfies the requirements of section 401(f)(2)

2—The United States or any of its agencies or instrumentalities

3—A state, the District of Columbia, a U.S. commonwealth or possession, or any of their political subdivisions or instrumentalities

4—A foreign government or any of its political subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities

5—A corporation

6—A dealer in securities or commodities required to register in the United States, the District of Columbia, or a U.S. commonwealth or possession

7—A futures commission merchant registered with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission

8—A real estate investment trust

9—An entity registered at all times during the tax year under the Investment Company Act of 1940

10—A common trust fund operated by a bank under section 584(a)

11—A financial institution

12—A middleman known in the investment community as a nominee or custodian

13—A trust exempt from tax under section 664 or described in section 4947

The following chart shows types of payments that may be exempt from backup withholding. The chart applies to the exempt payees listed above, 1 through 13.

 

IF the payment is for . . .   THEN the payment is exempt
for . . .
Interest and dividend payments   All exempt payees except for 7
Broker transactions   Exempt payees 1 through 4 and 6 through 11 and all C corporations. S corporations must not enter an exempt payee code because they are exempt only for sales of noncovered securities acquired prior to 2012.
Barter exchange transactions and patronage dividends   Exempt payees 1 through 4
Payments over $600 required to be reported and direct sales over $5,0001   Generally, exempt payees 1 through 52
Payments made in settlement of payment card or third party network transactions   Exempt payees 1 through 4
1 

See Form 1099-MISC, Miscellaneous Income, and its instructions.

2 

However, the following payments made to a corporation and reportable on Form 1099-MISC are not exempt from backup withholding: medical and health care payments, attorneys’ fees, gross proceeds paid to an attorney reportable under section 6045(f), and payments for services paid by a federal executive agency.

 


Form W-9 (Rev. 10-2018)

Page 4

 

 

Exemption from FATCA reporting code. The following codes identify payees that are exempt from reporting under FATCA. These codes apply to persons submitting this form for accounts maintained outside of the United States by certain foreign financial institutions. Therefore, if you are only submitting this form for an account you hold in the United States, you may leave this field blank. Consult with the person requesting this form if you are uncertain if the financial institution is subject to these requirements. A requester may indicate that a code is not required by providing you with a Form W-9 with “Not Applicable” (or any similar indication) written or printed on the line for a FATCA exemption code.

A—An organization exempt from tax under section 501(a) or any individual retirement plan as defined in section 7701(a)(37)

B—The United States or any of its agencies or instrumentalities

C—A state, the District of Columbia, a U.S. commonwealth or possession, or any of their political subdivisions or instrumentalities

D—A corporation the stock of which is regularly traded on one or more established securities markets, as described in Regulations section 1.1472-1(c)(1)(i)

E—A corporation that is a member of the same expanded affiliated group as a corporation described in Regulations section 1.1472-1(c)(1)(i)

F—A dealer in securities, commodities, or derivative financial instruments (including notional principal contracts, futures, forwards, and options) that is registered as such under the laws of the United States or any state

G—A real estate investment trust

H—A regulated investment company as defined in section 851 or an entity registered at all times during the tax year under the Investment Company Act of 1940

I—A common trust fund as defined in section 584(a)

J—A bank as defined in section 581

K—A broker

L—A trust exempt from tax under section 664 or described in section 4947(a)(1)

M—A tax exempt trust under a section 403(b) plan or section 457(g) plan

Note: You may wish to consult with the financial institution requesting this form to determine whether the FATCA code and/or exempt payee code should be completed.

Line 5

Enter your address (number, street, and apartment or suite number). This is where the requester of this Form W-9 will mail your information returns. If this address differs from the one the requester already has on file, write NEW at the top. If a new address is provided, there is still a chance the old address will be used until the payor changes your address in their records.

Line 6

Enter your city, state, and ZIP code.

Part I. Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN)

Enter your TIN in the appropriate box. If you are a resident alien and you do not have and are not eligible to get an SSN, your TIN is your IRS individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN). Enter it in the social security number box. If you do not have an ITIN, see How to get a TIN below.

If you are a sole proprietor and you have an EIN, you may enter either your SSN or EIN.

If you are a single-member LLC that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner, enter the owner’s SSN (or EIN, if the owner has one). Do not enter the disregarded entity’s EIN. If the LLC is classified as a corporation or partnership, enter the entity’s EIN.

Note: See What Name and Number To Give the Requester, later, for further clarification of name and TIN combinations.

How to get a TIN. If you do not have a TIN, apply for one immediately. To apply for an SSN, get Form SS-5, Application for a Social Security Card, from your local SSA office or get this form online at www.SSA.gov. You may also get this form by calling 1-800-772-1213. Use Form W-7, Application for IRS Individual Taxpayer Identification Number, to apply for an ITIN, or Form SS-4, Application for Employer Identification Number, to apply for an EIN. You can apply for an EIN online by

accessing the IRS website at www.irs.gov/Businesses and clicking on Employer Identification Number (EIN) under Starting a Business. Go to www.irs.gov/Forms to view, download, or print Form W-7 and/or Form SS-4. Or, you can go to www.irs.gov/OrderForms to place an order and have Form W-7 and/or SS-4 mailed to you within 10 business days.

If you are asked to complete Form W-9 but do not have a TIN, apply for a TIN and write “Applied For” in the space for the TIN, sign and date the form, and give it to the requester. For interest and dividend payments, and certain payments made with respect to readily tradable instruments, generally you will have 60 days to get a TIN and give it to the requester before you are subject to backup withholding on payments. The 60-day rule does not apply to other types of payments. You will be subject to backup withholding on all such payments until you provide your TIN to the requester.

Note: Entering “Applied For” means that you have already applied for a TIN or that you intend to apply for one soon.

Caution: A disregarded U.S. entity that has a foreign owner must use the appropriate Form W-8.

Part II. Certification

To establish to the withholding agent that you are a U.S. person, or resident alien, sign Form W-9. You may be requested to sign by the withholding agent even if item 1, 4, or 5 below indicates otherwise.

For a joint account, only the person whose TIN is shown in Part I should sign (when required). In the case of a disregarded entity, the person identified on line 1 must sign. Exempt payees, see Exempt payee code, earlier.

Signature requirements. Complete the certification as indicated in items 1 through 5 below.

1. Interest, dividend, and barter exchange accounts opened before 1984 and broker accounts considered active during 1983. You must give your correct TIN, but you do not have to sign the certification.

2. Interest, dividend, broker, and barter exchange accounts opened after 1983 and broker accounts considered inactive during 1983. You must sign the certification or backup withholding will apply. If you are subject to backup withholding and you are merely providing your correct TIN to the requester, you must cross out item 2 in the certification before signing the form.

3. Real estate transactions. You must sign the certification. You may cross out item 2 of the certification.

4. Other payments. You must give your correct TIN, but you do not have to sign the certification unless you have been notified that you have previously given an incorrect TIN. “Other payments” include payments made in the course of the requester’s trade or business for rents, royalties, goods (other than bills for merchandise), medical and health care services (including payments to corporations), payments to a nonemployee for services, payments made in settlement of payment card and third party network transactions, payments to certain fishing boat crew members and fishermen, and gross proceeds paid to attorneys (including payments to corporations).

5. Mortgage interest paid by you, acquisition or abandonment of secured property, cancellation of debt, qualified tuition program payments (under section 529), ABLE accounts (under section 529A), IRA, Coverdell ESA, Archer MSA or HSA contributions or distributions, and pension distributions. You must give your correct TIN, but you do not have to sign the certification.

What Name and Number To Give the Requester

 

   
For this type of account:   Give name and SSN of:
  1.     Individual   The individual
  2.     Two or more individuals (joint account) other than an account maintained by an FFI   The actual owner of the account or, if combined funds, the first individual on the account1
  3.    

Two or more U.S. persons

(joint account maintained by an FFI)

  Each holder of the account
  4.     Custodialaccount of a minor (Uniform Gift to Minors Act)   The minor2
  5.     a. The usual revocable savings trust (grantor is also trustee)   The grantor-trustee1
  b. So-called trust account that is not a legal or valid trust under state law   The actual owner1
 


Form W-9 (Rev. 10-2018)

Page 5

 

 

   
For this type of account:   Give name and SSN of:
  6.     Sole proprietorship or disregarded entity owned by an individual   The owner3
  7.     Grantortrust filing under Optional Form 1099 Filing Method 1 (see Regulations section 1.671-4(b)(2)(i)(A))   The grantor*
   
For this type of account:   Give name and EIN of:
  8.     Disregarded entity not owned by an individual   The owner
  9.     A valid trust, estate, or pension trust   Legal entity4
  10.     Corporation or LLC electing corporate status on Form 8832 or Form 2553   The corporation
  11.     Association, club, religious, charitable, educational, or other tax-exempt organization   The organization
  12.     Partnership or multi-member LLC   The partnership
  13.     A broker or registered nominee   The broker or nominee
  14.     Account with the Department of Agriculture in the name of a public entity (such as a state or local government, school district, or prison) that receives agricultural program payments   The public entity
  15.     Grantor trust filing under the Form 1041 Filing Method or the Optional Form 1099 Filing Method 2 (see Regulations section 1.671-4(b)(2)(i)(B))   The trust

1 List first and circle the name of the person whose number you furnish. If only one person on a joint account has an SSN, that person’s number must be furnished.

2 Circle the minor’s name and furnish the minor’s SSN.

3 You must show your individual name and you may also enter your business or DBA name on the “Business name/disregarded entity” name line. You may use either your SSN or EIN (if you have one), but the IRS encourages you to use your SSN.

4 List first and circle the name of the trust, estate, or pension trust. (Do not furnish the TIN of the personal representative or trustee unless the legal entity itself is not designated in the account title.) Also see Special rules for partnerships, earlier.

*Note: The grantor also must provide a Form W-9 to trustee of trust.

Note: If no name is circled when more than one name is listed, the number will be considered to be that of the first name listed.

Secure Your Tax Records From Identity Theft

Identity theft occurs when someone uses your personal information such as your name, SSN, or other identifying information, without your permission, to commit fraud or other crimes. An identity thief may use your SSN to get a job or may file a tax return using your SSN to receive a refund.

To reduce your risk:

• Protect your SSN,

• Ensure your employer is protecting your SSN, and

• Be careful when choosing a tax preparer.

If your tax records are affected by identity theft and you receive a notice from the IRS, respond right away to the name and phone number printed on the IRS notice or letter.

If your tax records are not currently affected by identity theft but you think you are at risk due to a lost or stolen purse or wallet, questionable credit card activity or credit report, contact the IRS Identity Theft Hotline at 1-800-908-4490 or submit Form 14039.

For more information, see Pub. 5027, Identity Theft Information for Taxpayers.

Victims of identity theft who are experiencing economic harm or a systemic problem, or are seeking help in resolving tax problems that have not been resolved through normal channels, may be eligible for Taxpayer Advocate Service (TAS) assistance. You can reach TAS by calling the TAS toll-free case intake line at 1-877-777-4778 or TTY/TDD 1-800-829-4059.

Protect yourself from suspicious emails or phishing schemes. Phishing is the creation and use of email and websites designed to mimic legitimate business emails and websites. The most common act is sending an email to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft.

The IRS does not initiate contacts with taxpayers via emails. Also, the IRS does not request personal detailed information through email or ask taxpayers for the PIN numbers, passwords, or similar secret access information for their credit card, bank, or other financial accounts.

If you receive an unsolicited email claiming to be from the IRS, forward this message to phishing@irs.gov. You may also report misuse of the IRS name, logo, or other IRS property to the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration (TIGTA) at 1-800-366-4484. You can forward suspicious emails to the Federal Trade Commission at spam@uce.gov or report them at www.ftc.gov/complaint. You can contact the FTC at www.ftc.gov/idtheft or 877-IDTHEFT (877-438-4338). If you have been the victim of identity theft, see www.IdentityTheft.gov and Pub. 5027.

Visit www.irs.gov/IdentityTheft to learn more about identity theft and how to reduce your risk.

Privacy Act Notice

Section 6109 of the Internal Revenue Code requires you to provide your correct TIN to persons (including federal agencies) who are required to file information returns with the IRS to report interest, dividends, or certain other income paid to you; mortgage interest you paid; the acquisition or abandonment of secured property; the cancellation of debt; or contributions you made to an IRA, Archer MSA, or HSA. The person collecting this form uses the information on the form to file information returns with the IRS, reporting the above information. Routine uses of this information include giving it to the Department of Justice for civil and criminal litigation and to cities, states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. commonwealths and possessions for use in administering their laws. The information also may be disclosed to other countries under a treaty, to federal and state agencies to enforce civil and criminal laws, or to federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies to combat terrorism. You must provide your TIN whether or not you are required to file a tax return. Under section 3406, payers must generally withhold a percentage of taxable interest, dividend, and certain other payments to a payee who does not give a TIN to the payer. Certain penalties may also apply for providing false or fraudulent information.

 


This Letter of Transmittal, any Certificates and any other required documents should be delivered by each record stockholder or the stockholder’s broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or nominee to the Depositary. Stockholders submitting Certificates representing Shares to be tendered must deliver such Certificates together with this Letter of Transmittal and any other required documents by mail or overnight courier. Facsimile copies of Certificates or this Letter of Transmittal will not be accepted. This Letter of Transmittal, any Certificates evidencing Shares and any other required documents should be sent or delivered by each stockholder or its, his or her broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee to the Depositary at one of its addresses set forth below:

The Depositary for the Offer is:

 

LOGO

 

By hand, express mail, courier or other expedited service:

 

American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC
Operations Center
Attn: Reorganization Department
6201 15th Avenue
Brooklyn, New York 11219

  

By mail:

 

American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, LLC
Operations Center
Attn: Reorganization Department
6201 15th Avenue
Brooklyn, New York 11219

Questions or requests for assistance or additional copies of the Offer to Purchase, this Letter of Transmittal the Notice of Guaranteed Delivery and other tender offer materials may be directed to the Information Agent at its telephone number and address set forth below. Stockholders may also contact their broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee for assistance concerning the Offer.

The Information Agent for the Offer is:

D.F. King & Co., Inc.

48 Wall Street, 22nd Floor

New York, New York 10005

Stockholders (toll-free): (800) 821-8781

Banks and Brokers: (212) 269-5550

Email: PFNX@dfking.com