Exhibit 3.1
FOURTH AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS
OF
LIGAND PHARMACEUTICALS INCORPORATED

ARTICLE I
OFFICES
Section 1. Registered Office. The registered office shall be in the City of Dover, County of Kent, State of Delaware.
Section 2. Other Offices. The corporation may also have offices at such other places both within and without the State of Delaware as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine or the business of the corporation may require.

ARTICLE II
MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS
Section 1. Place of Meetings. All meetings of the stockholders for the election of Directors shall be held in the City of San Diego, State of California, at such place as may be fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors, or at such other place either within or without the State of Delaware as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors and stated in the notice of the meeting. Meetings of stockholders for any other purpose may be held at such time and place, within or without the State of Delaware, as shall be stated in the notice of the meeting or in a duly executed waiver of notice thereof. The Board may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as authorized by Section 211(a)(2) of the General Corporation Law of Delaware.
Section 2. Annual Meeting. The annual meeting of the stockholders of the corporation, for the purpose of election of Directors and for such other business as may lawfully come before it, shall be held on such date and at such time as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may postpone, reschedule or cancel any previously scheduled annual meeting of stockholders.
Section 3. Notice of Business to be Brought Before a Meeting.
(a)    At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall have been properly brought before the meeting. To be properly brought before an annual meeting, business must be (i) specified in a notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the
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Board of Directors, (ii) if not specified in a notice of meeting, otherwise brought before the meeting by the Board of Directors or the Chairman of the Board or (iii) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by a stockholder present in person who (A) (1) was a record owner of shares of the corporation both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 3 and at the time of the meeting, (2) is entitled to vote at the meeting, and (3) has complied with this Section 3 in all applicable respects or (B) properly made such proposal in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (as so amended and inclusive of such rules and regulations, the “Exchange Act”). The foregoing clause (iii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to propose business to be brought before an annual meeting of the stockholders. For purposes of this Section 3, “present in person” shall mean that the stockholder proposing that the business be brought before the annual meeting of the corporation, or a qualified representative of such proposing stockholder, appear at such annual meeting. A “qualified representative” of such proposing stockholder shall be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or any other person authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting of stockholders. Stockholders seeking to nominate persons for election to the Board of Directors must comply with Section 4 and Section 5 and this Section 3 shall not be applicable to nominations except as expressly provided in Section 4 and Section 5.
(b)    Without qualification, for business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, the stockholder must (i) provide Timely Notice (as defined below) thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the corporation and (ii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 3. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be delivered to, or mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the corporation not less than ninety (90) days nor more than one hundred twenty (120) days prior to the one-year anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that if the date of the annual meeting is more than thirty (30) days before or more than sixty (60) days after such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered, or mailed and received, not later than the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such annual meeting or, if later, the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was first made by the corporation (such notice within such time periods, “Timely Notice”). In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of Timely Notice as described above.
(c)    To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 3, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth:
(i)    As to each Proposing Person (as defined below), (A) the name and address of such Proposing Person (including, if applicable, the name and address that appear on the corporation’s books and records); and (B) the class or series and number of shares of the corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned of record or beneficially owned
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(within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 under the Exchange Act) by such Proposing Person, except that such Proposing Person shall in all events be deemed to beneficially own any shares of any class or series of the corporation as to which such Proposing Person has a right to acquire beneficial ownership at any time in the future (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (A) and (B) are referred to as “Stockholder Information”);
(ii)    As to each Proposing Person, (A) the full notional amount of any securities that, directly or indirectly, underlie any “derivative security” (as such term is defined in Rule 16a-1(c) under the Exchange Act) that constitutes a “call equivalent position” (as such term is defined in Rule 16a-1(b) under the Exchange Act) (“Synthetic Equity Position”) and that is, directly or indirectly, held or maintained by such Proposing Person with respect to any shares of any class or series of shares of the corporation; provided that, for the purposes of the definition of “Synthetic Equity Position,” the term “derivative security” shall also include any security or instrument that would not otherwise constitute a “derivative security” as a result of any feature that would make any conversion, exercise or similar right or privilege of such security or instrument becoming determinable only at some future date or upon the happening of a future occurrence, in which case the determination of the amount of securities into which such security or instrument would be convertible or exercisable shall be made assuming that such security or instrument is immediately convertible or exercisable at the time of such determination; and, provided, further, that any Proposing Person satisfying the requirements of Rule 13d-1(b)(1) under the Exchange Act (other than a Proposing Person that so satisfies Rule 13d-1(b)(1) under the Exchange Act solely by reason of Rule 13d-1(b)(1)(ii)(E)) shall not be deemed to hold or maintain the notional amount of any securities that underlie a Synthetic Equity Position held by such Proposing Person as a hedge with respect to a bona fide derivatives trade or position of such Proposing Person arising in the ordinary course of such Proposing Person's business as a derivatives dealer, (B) any rights to dividends on the shares of any class or series of shares of the corporation owned beneficially by such Proposing Person that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the corporation, (C) any material pending or threatened legal proceeding in which such Proposing Person is a party or material participant involving the corporation or any of its officers or Directors, or any affiliate of the corporation, (D) any other material relationship between such Proposing Person, on the one hand, and the corporation, any affiliate of the corporation, on the other hand, (E) any direct or indirect material interest in any material contract or agreement of such Proposing Person with the corporation or any affiliate of the corporation (including, in any such case, any employment agreement, collective bargaining agreement or consulting agreement), (F) a representation that such Proposing Person intends or is part of a group which intends to deliver a proxy statement or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to approve or adopt the proposal or otherwise solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such proposal and (G) any other information relating to such Proposing Person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies or consents by such Proposing Person in support of the business proposed to be
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brought before the meeting pursuant to Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (A) through (G) are referred to as “Disclosable Interests”); provided, however, that Disclosable Interests shall not include any such disclosures with respect to the ordinary course business activities of any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner; and
(iii)    As to each item of business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting, (A) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting and any material interest in such business of each Proposing Person, (B) the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend the Bylaws, the language of the proposed amendment), and (C) a reasonably detailed description of all agreements, arrangements and understandings (x) between or among any of the Proposing Persons or (y) between or among any Proposing Person and any other person or entity (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business by such stockholder; and (D) any other information relating to such item of business that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies in support of the business proposed to be brought before the meeting pursuant to Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, that the disclosures required by this paragraph (iii) shall not include any disclosures with respect to any broker, dealer, commercial bank, trust company or other nominee who is a Proposing Person solely as a result of being the stockholder directed to prepare and submit the notice required by these Bylaws on behalf of a beneficial owner.
For purposes of this Section 3, the term “Proposing Person” shall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the business proposed to be brought before the annual meeting is made, and (iii) any participant (as defined in paragraphs (a)(ii)-(vi) of Instruction 3 to Item 4 of Schedule 14A) with such stockholder in such solicitation.
(d)    A Proposing Person shall update and supplement its notice to the corporation of its intent to propose business at an annual meeting, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 3 shall be true and correct as of the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of such record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed)
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(in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof). For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement as set forth in this paragraph or any other Section of these Bylaws shall not limit the corporation’s rights with respect to any deficiencies in any notice provided by a stockholder, extend any applicable deadlines hereunder or enable or be deemed to permit a stockholder who has previously submitted notice hereunder to amend or update any proposal or to submit any new proposal, including by changing or adding matters, business or resolutions proposed to be brought before a meeting of the stockholders.
(e)    Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at an annual meeting that is not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with this Section 3. The presiding officer of the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine that the business was not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with this Section 3, and if he or she should so determine, he or she shall so declare to the meeting and any such business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted.
(f)    This Section 3 is expressly intended to apply to any business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting of stockholders other than any proposal made in accordance with Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act and included in the corporation’s proxy statement. In addition to the requirements of this Section 3 with respect to any business proposed to be brought before an annual meeting, each Proposing Person shall comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to any such business. Nothing in this Section 3 shall be deemed to affect the rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act.
(g)    For purposes of these Bylaws, “public disclosure” shall mean disclosure in a press release reported by a national news service or in a document publicly filed by the corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Sections 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.
Section 4. Notice of Nominations for Election to the Board of Directors.
(a)    Nominations of any person for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting or at a special meeting (but only if the election of Directors is a matter specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person calling such special meeting) may be made at such meeting only (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, including by any committee or persons authorized to do so by the Board of Directors or these bylaws, or (ii) by a stockholder present in person (A) who was a record owner of shares of the corporation both at the time of giving the notice provided for in this Section 4 and at the time of the meeting, (B) is entitled to vote at the meeting, and (C) has complied with this Section 4 and Section 5 as to such notice and nomination. For purposes of this Section 4, “present in person” shall mean that the stockholder proposing that the business be brought before the meeting of the corporation, or a qualified representative of such stockholder, appear at such meeting. A “qualified representative” of such proposing stockholder shall be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or any other person authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such
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stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting of stockholders. The foregoing clause (ii) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting or special meeting.
(b)    (i) Without qualification, for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting, the stockholder must (1) provide Timely Notice (as defined in Section 3) thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the corporation, (2) provide the information, agreements and questionnaires with respect to such stockholder and its candidate for nomination as required to be set forth by this Section 4 and Section 5 and (3) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 4 and Section 5.
(ii) Without qualification, if the election of Directors is a matter specified in the notice of meeting given by or at the direction of the person calling a special meeting, then for a stockholder to make any nomination of a person or persons for election to the Board of Directors at a special meeting, the stockholder must (i) provide timely notice thereof in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the corporation at the principal executive offices of the corporation, (ii) provide the information with respect to such stockholder and its candidate for nomination as required by this Section 4 and Section 5 and (iii) provide any updates or supplements to such notice at the times and in the forms required by this Section 4. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice for nominations to be made at a special meeting must be delivered to, or mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the corporation not earlier than the one hundred twentieth (120th) day prior to such special meeting and not later than the ninetieth (90th) day prior to such special meeting or, if later, the tenth (10th) day following the day on which public disclosure (as defined in Section 3) of the date of such special meeting was first made.
(iii) In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or special meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.
(c)    To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 4, a stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth:
(i)    As to each Nominating Person (as defined below), the Stockholder Information (as defined in Section 3(c)(i), except that for purposes of this Section 4 the term “Nominating Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 3(c)(i));
(ii)    As to each Nominating Person, any Disclosable Interests (as defined in Section 3(c)(ii), except that for purposes of this Section 4 the term “Nominating Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 3(c)(ii) and the disclosure with respect to the business to be brought before the meeting in
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Section 3(c)(ii) shall be made with respect to the election of Directors at the meeting); and
(iii)    As to each candidate whom a Nominating Person proposes to nominate for election as a Director, (A) all information with respect to such candidate for nomination that would be required to be set forth in a stockholder’s notice pursuant to this Section 4 and Section 5 if such candidate for nomination were a Nominating Person, (B) all information relating to such candidate for nomination that is required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for election of Directors in a contested election pursuant to Section 14(a) under the Exchange Act (including such candidate’s written consent to being named in the proxy statement as a nominee and to serving as a Director if elected), (C) a description of any direct or indirect material interest in any material contract or agreement between or among any Nominating Person, on the one hand, and each candidate for nomination or his or her respective associates or any other participants in such solicitation, on the other hand, including, without limitation, all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 under Regulation S-K if such Nominating Person were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and the candidate for nomination were a Director or executive officer of such registrant (the disclosures to be made pursuant to the foregoing clauses (A) through (C) are referred to as “Nominee Information”), and (D) a completed and signed questionnaire, representation and agreement as provided in Section 5(a).
For purposes of this Section 4, the term “Nominating Person” shall mean (i) the stockholder providing the notice of the nomination proposed to be made at the meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf the notice of the nomination proposed to be made at the meeting is made, and (iii) any other participant in such solicitation.
(d)    A stockholder providing notice of any nomination proposed to be made at a meeting shall further update and supplement such notice, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice pursuant to this Section 4 shall be true and correct as of the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of such record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof). For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement as set forth in this paragraph or any other Section of these Bylaws shall not limit the corporation’s rights with respect to any deficiencies in any notice provided by a stockholder, extend any applicable deadlines hereunder or enable or be deemed to permit a stockholder who has previously submitted notice hereunder to amend or update any nomination or to submit any new nomination.
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(e)    In addition to the requirements of this Section 4 with respect to any nomination proposed to be made at a meeting, each Nominating Person shall comply with all applicable requirements of the Exchange Act with respect to any such nominations.
Section 5. Additional Requirements For Valid Nomination of Candidates to Serve as Director and, If Elected, to Be Seated as Directors.
(a)    To be eligible to be a candidate for election as a Director at an annual or special meeting, a candidate must be nominated in the manner prescribed in Section 4 and the candidate for nomination, whether nominated by the Board of Directors or by a stockholder of record, must have previously delivered (in accordance with the time period prescribed for delivery in a notice to such candidate given by or on behalf of the Board of Directors), to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation, (i) a completed written questionnaire (in a form provided by the corporation) with respect to the background, qualifications, stock ownership and independence of such proposed nominee and (ii) a written representation and agreement (in form provided by the corporation) that such candidate for nomination (A) is not and, if elected as a Director during his or her term of office, will not become a party to (1) any agreement, arrangement or understanding with, and has not given and will not give any commitment or assurance to, any person or entity as to how such proposed nominee, if elected as a Director, will act or vote on any issue or question (a “Voting Commitment”) or (2) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such proposed nominee’s ability to comply, if elected as a Director, with such proposed nominee’s fiduciary duties under applicable law, (B) is not, and will not become a party to, any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation or reimbursement for service as a Director that has not been disclosed therein, and (C) if elected as a Director, will comply with all applicable corporate governance, conflict of interest, confidentiality, stock ownership and trading and other policies and guidelines of the corporation applicable to directors and in effect during such person’s term in office as a Director (and, if requested by any candidate for nomination, the Secretary of the corporation shall provide to such candidate for nomination all such policies and guidelines then in effect).
(b)    The Board of Directors may also require any proposed candidate for nomination as a Director to furnish such other information as may reasonably be requested by the Board of Directors in writing prior to the meeting of stockholders at which such candidate’s nomination is to be acted upon in order for the Board of Directors to determine the eligibility of such candidate for nomination to be an independent Director in accordance with any national securities exchange on which the corporation’s securities are listed.
(c)    A candidate for nomination as a Director shall further update and supplement the materials delivered pursuant to this Section 5, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided pursuant to this Section 5 shall be true and correct as of the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation (or any other office specified by the corporation in any
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public announcement) not later than five (5) business days after the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of such record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof). For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement as set forth in this paragraph or any other Section of these Bylaws shall not limit the corporation’s rights with respect to any deficiencies in any notice provided by a stockholder, extend any applicable deadlines hereunder or enable or be deemed to permit a stockholder who has previously submitted notice hereunder to amend or update any proposal or to submit any new proposal, including by changing or adding nominees, matters, business or resolutions proposed to be brought before a meeting of the stockholders.
(d)    No candidate shall be eligible for nomination as a Director unless such candidate for nomination and the Nominating Person seeking to place such candidate’s name in nomination has complied with Section 4 and this Section 5, as applicable. The presiding officer at the meeting shall, if the facts warrant, determine that a nomination was not properly made in accordance with Section 4 and this Section 5, and if he or she should so determine, he or she shall so declare such determination to the meeting, the defective nomination shall be disregarded and any ballots cast for the candidate in question (but in the case of any form of ballot listing other qualified nominees, only the ballots cast for the nominee in question) shall be void and of no force or effect.
(e)    Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, no candidate for nomination shall be eligible to be seated as a Director unless nominated and elected in accordance with Section 4 and this Section 5.
Section 6. Voting List. The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the corporation shall prepare and make, at least ten days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. The corporation shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten days prior to the meeting, either at a place within the city where the meeting is to be held, which place shall be specified in the notice of the meeting, or, if not so specified, at the place where the meeting is to be held. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting. The list shall also be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present.
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Section 7. Special Meetings.
(a)    Special meetings of the stockholders for any purpose or purposes, unless otherwise prescribed by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation, may be called only (i) by the Chairman of the Board, (ii) by the Board of Directors, pursuant to a resolution approved by a majority of the entire Board of Directors, or (iii) by the Secretary of the corporation, following his or her receipt of one or more written demands to call a special meeting of the stockholders in accordance with, and subject to, this Section 7 from stockholders of record as of the record date fixed in accordance with Section 7(d) who hold, in the aggregate, at least ten percent (10%) of the voting power of the outstanding shares of the corporation. The notice of a special meeting shall state the purpose or purposes of the special meeting, and the business to be conducted at the special meeting shall be limited to the purpose or purposes stated in the notice. Except in accordance with this Section 7, stockholders shall not be permitted to propose business to be brought before a special meeting of the stockholders. Stockholders who nominate persons for election to the Board of Directors at a special meeting must also comply with the requirements set forth in Section 4 and Section 5.
(b)    No stockholder may demand that the Secretary of the corporation call a special meeting of the stockholders pursuant to Section 7(a) unless a stockholder of record has first submitted a request in writing that the Board of Directors fix a record date ( a “Demand Record Date”) for the purpose of determining the stockholders entitled to demand that the Secretary of the corporation call such special meeting, which request shall be in proper form and delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary of the corporation at the principal executive offices of the corporation.
(c)    To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 7, a request by a stockholder for the Board of Directors to fix a Demand Record Date shall set forth:
(i)    As to each Requesting Person (as defined below), the Stockholder Information (as defined in Section 3(c)(i), except that for purposes of this Section 7 the term “Requesting Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 3(c)(i));
(ii)    As to each Requesting Person, any Disclosable Interests (as defined in Section 3(c)(ii), except that for purposes of this Section 7 the term “Requesting Person” shall be substituted for the term “Proposing Person” in all places it appears in Section 3(c)(ii) and the disclosure with respect to the business to be brought before the meeting in Section 3(c)(ii) shall be made with respect to the business proposed to be conducted at the special meeting or the proposed election of directors at the special meeting, as the case may be);
(iii)    As to the purpose or purposes of the special meeting, (A) a reasonably brief description of the purpose or purposes of the special meeting and the business proposed to be conducted at the special meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at the special meeting and any material interest in such business of each Requesting Person, and (B) a reasonably detailed description of all agreements, arrangements and
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understandings (x) between or among any of the Requesting Persons or (y) between or among any Requesting Person and any other person or entity (including their names) in connection with the request for the special meeting or the business proposed to be conducted at the special meeting; and
(iv)    If directors are proposed to be elected at the special meeting, the Nominee Information for each person whom a Requesting Person expects to nominate for election as a Director at the special meeting.
For purposes of this Section 7(c), the term “Requesting Person” shall mean (i) the stockholder making the request to fix a Demand Record Date for the purpose of determining the stockholders entitled to demand that the Secretary call a special meeting, (ii) the beneficial owner or beneficial owners, if different, on whose behalf such request is made, and (iii) any affiliate of such stockholder or beneficial owner.
(d)    Within ten (10) days after receipt of a request to fix a Demand Record Date in proper form and otherwise in compliance with this Section 7 from any stockholder of record, the Board of Directors may adopt a resolution fixing a Demand Record Date for the purpose of determining the stockholders entitled to demand that the Secretary of the corporation call a special meeting, which date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the Demand Record Date is adopted by the Board of Directors. If no resolution fixing a Demand Record Date has been adopted by the Board of Directors within the ten (10) day period after the date on which such a request to fix a Demand Record Date was received, the Demand Record Date in respect thereof shall be deemed to be the twentieth (20th) day after the date on which such a request is received. Notwithstanding anything in this Section 7 to the contrary, no Demand Record Date shall be fixed if the Board of Directors determines that the demand or demands that would otherwise be submitted following such Demand Record Date could not comply with the requirements set forth in clauses (ii), (iv), (v) or (vi) of Section 7(f).
(e)    Without qualification, a special meeting of the stockholders shall not be called pursuant to Section 7(a) unless stockholders of record as of the Demand Record Date who hold, in the aggregate, more than ten percent (10%) of the voting power of the outstanding shares of the corporation (the “Requisite Percentage”) timely provide one or more demands to call such special meeting in writing and in proper form to the Secretary of the corporation at the principal executive offices of the corporation. Only stockholders of record on the Demand Record Date shall be entitled to demand that the Secretary of the corporation call a special meeting of the stockholders pursuant to Section 7(a). To be timely, a stockholder’s demand to call a special meeting must be delivered to, or mailed and received at, the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than the sixtieth (60th) day following the Demand Record Date. To be in proper form for purposes of this Section 7, a demand to call a special meeting shall set forth (i) the business proposed to be conducted at the special meeting or the proposed election of directors at the special meeting, as the case may be, (ii) the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration), if applicable, and (iii) with respect to any stockholder or stockholders submitting a demand to call a special meeting (except for any stockholder that has provided such demand in response to a solicitation made pursuant to, and in
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accordance with, Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act by way of a solicitation statement filed on Schedule 14A) (a “Solicited Stockholder”) the information required to be provided pursuant to this Section 7 of a Requesting Person. A stockholder may revoke a demand to call a special meeting by written revocation delivered to the Secretary at any time prior to the special meeting. If any such revocation(s) are received by the Secretary after the Secretary’s receipt of written demands from the holders of the Requisite Percentage of stockholders, and as a result of such revocation(s), there no longer are unrevoked demands from the Requisite Percentage of stockholders to call a special meeting, the Board of Directors shall have the discretion to determine whether or not to proceed with the special meeting.
(f)    The Secretary shall not accept, and shall consider ineffective, a written demand from a stockholder to call a special meeting (i) that does not comply with this Section 7, (ii) that relates to an item of business to be transacted at such meeting that is not a proper subject for stockholder action under applicable law, (iii) that includes an item of business to be transacted at such meeting that did not appear on the written request that resulted in the determination of the Demand Record Date, (iv) that relates to an item of business (other than the election of directors) that is identical or substantially similar to an item of business (a “Similar Item”) for which a record date for notice of a stockholder meeting (other than the Demand Record Date) was previously fixed and such demand is delivered between the time beginning on the sixty-first (61st) day after such previous record date and ending on the one-year anniversary of such previous record date, (v) if a Similar Item will be submitted for stockholder approval at any stockholder meeting to be held on or before the ninetieth (90th) day after the Secretary receives such demand, or (vi) if a Similar Item has been presented at the most recent annual meeting or at any special meeting held within one year prior to receipt by the Secretary of such demand to call a special meeting.
(g)    After receipt of demands in proper form and in accordance with this Section 7 from a stockholder or stockholders holding the Requisite Percentage, the Board of Directors shall duly call, and determine the place, date and time of, a special meeting of stockholders for the purpose or purposes and to conduct the business specified in the demands received by the corporation. Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, the Board of Directors may submit its own proposal or proposals for consideration at such a special meeting. The record date for notice and voting for such a special meeting shall be fixed in accordance with Section 5 of Article VI of these Bylaws. The Board of Directors shall provide written notice of such special meeting to the stockholders in accordance with Section 9.
(h)    In connection with a special meeting called in accordance with this Section 7, the stockholder or stockholders (except for any Solicited Stockholder) who requested that the Board of Directors fix a record date for notice and voting for the special meeting in accordance with this Section 7 or who delivered a demand to call a special meeting to the Secretary shall further update and supplement the information previously provided to the corporation in connection with such request or demand, if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such request or demand pursuant to this Section 7 shall be true and correct as of the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the special meeting and as of the date that is ten (10) business days prior to the special meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof, and such
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update and supplement shall be delivered to, or mailed and received by, the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not later than five (5) business days after the record date for stockholders entitled to vote at the special meeting (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of such record date), and not later than eight (8) business days prior to the date for the special meeting or, if practicable, any adjournment or postponement thereof (and, if not practicable, on the first practicable date prior to the date to which the special meeting has been adjourned or postponed) (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of ten (10) business days prior to the special meeting or any adjournment or postponement thereof). For the avoidance of doubt, the obligation to update and supplement as set forth in this paragraph or any other Section of these Bylaws shall not limit the corporation’s rights with respect to any deficiencies in any request or demand provided by a stockholder, extend any applicable deadlines hereunder or enable or be deemed to permit a stockholder who has previously submitted a request or demand hereunder to amend or update any such request or demand, including by changing or adding nominees, matters, business or resolutions proposed to be brought before a meeting of the stockholders.
(i)    Notwithstanding anything in these Bylaws to the contrary, the Secretary shall not be required to call a special meeting pursuant to this Section 7 except in accordance with this Section 7. If the Board of Directors shall determine that any request to fix a record date for notice and voting for the special meeting or demand to call and hold a special meeting was not properly made in accordance with this Section 7, or shall determine that the stockholder or stockholders requesting that the Board of Directors fix such record date or submitting a demand to call the special meeting have not otherwise complied with this Section 7, then the Board of Directors shall not be required to fix such record date or to call and hold the special meeting. In addition to the requirements of this Section 7, each Requesting Person shall comply with all requirements of applicable law, including all requirements of the Exchange Act, with respect to any request to fix a record date for notice and voting for the special meeting or demand to call a special meeting.
Section 8. Action at Special Meeting. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to the purposes stated in the notice.
    Section 9. Notice of Stockholders’ Meetings. Unless otherwise provided by law, the certificate of incorporation or these Bylaws, the notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be sent or otherwise given in accordance with Article IV of these bylaws not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting. The notice shall specify the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (if such date is different from the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting) and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called.
Section 10. Quorum and Adjournments.
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(a) The holders of a majority of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transaction of business except as otherwise provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation. If, however, such quorum shall not be present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, then either (i) the person presiding over the meeting or (ii) the stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time as set forth in Section 10(b).
(b) Any meeting of stockholders, annual or special, may adjourn from time to time to reconvene at the same or some other place, without notice other than announcement at the meeting. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum shall be present or represented any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as originally notified. If the adjournment is for more than thirty days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.
(c) When a quorum is present at any meeting, the vote of the holders of a majority of the stock having voting power present in person or represented by proxy shall decide any question brought before such meeting, unless the question is one upon which by express provision of the statutes or of the Certificate of Incorporation, a different vote is required, in which case such express provision shall govern and control the decision of such question. At all meetings of stockholders for the election of directors at which a quorum is present a plurality of the votes cast shall be sufficient to elect a director.
Section 11. Voting Rights. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation each stockholder shall at every meeting of the stockholders be entitled to one vote in person or by proxy for each share of the capital stock having voting power held by such stockholder, but no proxy shall be voted on after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. The corporation is no longer subject to Section 2115 of the California Corporations Code and accordingly cumulative voting is no longer available to the stockholders of the corporation.
Section 12. Action Without Meeting. No action shall be taken by the stockholders of the corporation except at an annual or special meeting of stockholders called in accordance with these Bylaws, and no action shall be taken by the stockholders by written consent.
Section 13. Conduct of Business. The date and time of the opening and the closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at a meeting shall be announced at the meeting by the person presiding over the meeting. The Board of Directors may adopt by resolution such rules and regulations for the conduct of the meeting of stockholders as it shall deem appropriate. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the Board of Directors, the person presiding over any meeting of stockholders shall have the right and authority to convene and (for any or no reason) to recess and/or adjourn the meeting, to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures (which need not be in writing) and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such presiding person, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or prescribed by the person presiding over the meeting, may include, without limitation, the
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following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present (including, without limitation, rules and procedures for removal of disruptive persons from the meeting); (iii) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the person presiding over the meeting shall determine; (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (v) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants. The presiding person at any meeting of stockholders, in addition to making any other determinations that may be appropriate to the conduct of the meeting (including, without limitation, determinations with respect to the administration and/or interpretation of any of the rules, regulations or procedures of the meeting, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or prescribed by the person presiding over the meeting), shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that a matter of business was not properly brought before the meeting and if such presiding person should so determine, such presiding person shall so declare to the meeting and any such matter or business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted or considered. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board of Directors or the person presiding over the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.
Section 14. Inspectors of Election.
(a)    Before any meeting of stockholders, the corporation shall appoint an inspector or inspectors of election to act at the meeting or its adjournment and make a written report thereof. The corporation may designate one or more persons as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If any person appointed as inspector or any alternate fails to appear or fails or refuses to act, then the person presiding over the meeting shall appoint a person to fill that vacancy.
(b)    Such inspectors shall:
(i)    determine the number of shares outstanding and the voting power of each, the number of shares represented at the meeting and the validity of any proxies and ballots;
(ii)    count all votes or ballots;
(iii)    count and tabulate all votes;
(iv)    determine and retain for a reasonable period a record of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the inspector(s); and
(v)    certify its or their determination of the number of shares represented at the meeting and its or their count of all votes and ballots.
Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of the duties of inspector, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspection with strict impartiality and
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according to the best of such inspector’s ability. Any report or certificate made by the inspectors of election is prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein. The inspectors of election may appoint such persons to assist them in performing their duties as they determine.

ARTICLE III
DIRECTORS
Section 1. Number, Term of Office and Qualification. The number of Directors shall be determined from time to time by resolution of the Board of Directors, and each Director elected shall hold office until his successor is elected and qualified. No reduction of the authorized number of Director shall have the effect of removing any Directors before that Director’s term of office expires. Directors need not be stockholders.
Section 2. Vacancies. Vacancies and newly created Directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of Directors may be filled by a majority of the Directors then in office, though less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining Director, and the Directors so chosen shall hold office until the next annual election and until their successors are duly elected and shall qualify, unless sooner displaced. If there are no Directors in office, then an election of Directors may be held in the manner provided by statute. If, at the time of filling any vacancy or any newly created Directorship, the Directors then in office shall constitute less than a majority of the whole Board (as constituted immediately prior to any such increase), the Court of Chancery may, upon application of any stockholder or stockholders holding at least ten percent of the total number of the shares at the time outstanding having the right to vote for such Directors, summarily order an election to be held to fill any such vacancies or newly created Directorships, or to replace the Directors chosen by the Directors then in office.
Section 3. Powers. The business of the corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of its Board of Directors which may exercise all such powers of the corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these Bylaws directed or required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.
Section 4. Regular and Special Meetings. The Board of Directors of the corporation may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or without the State of Delaware.
Section 5. Annual Meeting. The first meeting of each newly elected Board of Directors shall be held at such time and place as shall be fixed by the vote of the stockholders at the annual meeting and no notice of such meeting shall be necessary to the newly elected Directors in order legally to constitute the meeting, provided a quorum shall be present. In the event of the failure of the stockholders to fix the time or place of such first meeting of the newly elected Board of Directors, or in the event such meeting nominee and any other person or persons (naming such person or persons) pursuant to which the nominations are to be made by the stockholder, and (E) any other information relating to such is not held at the time and place so fixed by the stockholders, the meeting may be held at such time and place as shall be specified in a notice
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given as hereinafter provided for special meetings of the Board of Directors, or as shall be specified in a written waiver signed by all of the Directors.
Section 6. Notice of Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held without notice at such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by the Board.
Section 7. Notice of Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board may be called by the president on four (4) days' notice to each Director by mail or 48 hours' notice to each Director either personally or by telegram; special meetings shall be called by the president or secretary in like manner and on like notice on the written request of a majority of the Directors.
Section 8. Quorum. At all meetings of the Board a majority of the Directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business and the act of a majority of the Directors present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of the Board of Directors, except as may be otherwise specifically provided by statute or by the Certificate of Incorporation. If a quorum shall not be present at any meeting of the Board of Directors, the Directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present.
Section 9. Action Without Meeting. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission. After an action is taken, the consent or consents relating thereto shall be filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board or committee in the same paper or electronic form as the minutes are maintained.
Section 10. Meetings by Telephone Conference Calls. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, members of the Board of Directors, or any committee designated by the Board of Directors, may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors, or any committee, by means of conference telephone or similar communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and such participation in a meeting shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.
Section 11. Committees. The Board of Directors may, by resolution passed by a majority of the whole Board, designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the Directors of the corporation. The Board may designate one or more Directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence of disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he or they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation, and may authorize the seal of the corporation to be affixed to all papers which
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may require it; but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to amending the Certificate of Incorporation, adopting an agreement of merger or consolidation, recommending to the stockholders the sale, lease or exchange of all or substantially all of the corporation's property and assets, recommending to the stockholders a dissolution of the corporation or a revocation of a dissolution, or amending the Bylaws of the corporation; and, unless the resolution or the Certificate of Incorporation expressly so provide, no such committee shall have the power or authority to declare a dividend or to authorize the issuance of stock. Such committee or committees shall have such name or names as may be determined from time to time by resolution adopted by the Board of Directors. Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the Board of Directors when required.
Section 12. Fees and Compensation. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, the Board of Directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation of Directors. The Directors may be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors and may be paid a fixed sum for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or a stated salary as Director. No such payment shall preclude any Director from serving the corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor. Members of special or standing committees may be allowed like compensation for attending committee meetings.
Section 13. Removal. Subject to any limitations imposed by law or the Certificate of Incorporation, the Board of Directors, or any individual Director, may be removed from office at any time, with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of shares entitled to vote at an election of Directors.

ARTICLE IV
NOTICES
Section 1. Notice.
(a)    Whenever, under the provisions of the statutes or of the Certificate of Incorporation or of these Bylaws, notice is required to be given to any stockholder, it shall not be construed to mean personal notice, but such notice may be effectively given, without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders pursuant to the General Corporation Law of Delaware, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, in writing directed to the stockholder’s mailing address (or by electronic transmission directed to the stockholder’s electronic mail address, as applicable) as it appears on the records of the corporation.
Any notice given pursuant to the preceding paragraph shall be deemed given:
(i) if mailed, when deposited in the United States mail,
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(ii) if delivered by courier service, the earlier of when the notice is received or left at the stockholder’s address, or
(ii) if given by electronic mail, when directed to such stockholder’s electronic mail address (unless the stockholder has notified the corporation in writing or by electronic transmission of an objection to receiving notice by electronic mail or such notice is prohibited by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware to be given by electronic transmission). A notice by electronic mail must include a prominent legend that the communication is an important notice regarding the corporation. A notice by electronic mail will include any files attached thereto and any information hyperlinked to a website if such electronic mail includes the contact information of an officer or agent of the corporation who is available to assist with accessing such files or information. Any notice to stockholders by electronic transmission other than by electronic mail may only be given in a form consented to by such stockholder and any such notice by electronic transmission shall be deemed to be given as provided for in the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.
    (b)    Except as otherwise provided herein or permitted by applicable law, notices to directors may be in writing and delivered personally or mailed to the directors at their addresses appearing on the books of the corporation or may be given by telephone or any other means of electronic transmission, including, without limitation, electronic mail.
    (c)    Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, and except as prohibited by applicable law, any notice to stockholder given by the corporation under any provision of applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation, or these Bylaws shall be effective if given by a single written notice to stockholders who share an address if consented to by the stockholders at that address to whom such notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the corporation. Any stockholder who fails to object in writing to the corporation, within 60 days of having been given written notice by the corporation of its intention to send the single notice permitted under this Section 1(c) shall be deemed to have consented to receiving such single written notice.
Section 2. Definition of Electronic Transmission. An “electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.
Section 3. Waiver of Notice. Whenever any notice is required to be given under the provisions of the statutes or of the Certificate of Incorporation or of these Bylaws, a waiver thereof given by the person or persons entitled to said notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent thereto. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at nor the purpose of any regular or special meeting of the stockholders, directors or members of a committee of directors need to be specified in a waiver of notice.
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ARTICLE V
OFFICERS
Section 1. Enumeration. The officers of the corporation shall be chosen by the Board of Directors and shall be a president and a secretary. The Board of Directors may elect from among its members a Chairman of the Board and a Vice Chairman of the Board. The Board of Directors may also choose a treasurer and/or one or more vice presidents, assistant secretaries and assistant treasurers. Any number of offices may be held by the same person, unless the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws otherwise provide. The salaries of all officers and agents of the corporation shall be fixed by the Board of Directors.
Section 2. Election or Appointment. The Board of Directors at its first meeting after each annual meeting of stockholders shall choose a president and a secretary and may choose a vice president and a treasurer. The Board of Directors may appoint such other officers and agents as it shall deem necessary who shall hold their offices for such terms and shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the Board.
Section 3. Tenure, Removal and Vacancies. The officers of the corporation shall hold office until their successors are chosen and qualified. Any officer elected or appointed by the Board of Directors may be removed at any time by the affirmative vote of a majority of the Board of Directors. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the corporation shall be filled by the Board of Directors.
Section 4. Chairman of the Board. The Chairman of the Board, if any, shall preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders at which he shall be present. He shall have and may exercise such powers as are, from time to time, assigned to him by the Board and as may be provided by law.
Section 5. Vice Chairman of the Board. In the absence of the Chairman of the Board, the Vice Chairman of the Board, if any, shall preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors and of the stockholders at which he shall be present. He shall have and may exercise such powers as are, from time to time, assigned to him by the Board and as may be provided by law.
Section 6. President. The president shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation; and in the absence of the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Board he shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and the Board of Directors; he shall have general and active management of the business of the corporation and shall see that all orders and resolutions of the Board of Directors are carried into effect. He shall execute bonds, mortgages and other contracts requiring a seal, under the seal of the corporation, except where required or permitted by law to be otherwise signed and executed and except where the signing and execution thereof shall be expressly delegated by the Board of Directors to some other officer or agent of the corporation.
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Section 7. Vice President. In the absence of the president or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, the vice president, if any, (or in the event there be more than one vice president, the vice presidents in the order designated by the Directors, or in the absence of any designation, then in the order of their election) shall perform the duties of the president, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the president. The vice presidents shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.
Section 8. Secretary. The secretary shall attend all meetings of the Board of Directors and all meetings of the stockholders and record all the proceedings of the meetings of the corporation and of the Board of Directors in a book to be kept for that purpose and shall perform like duties for the standing committees when required. He shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors or president, under whose supervision he shall be. He shall have custody of the corporate seal of the corporation and he, or an assistant secretary, shall have authority to affix the same to any instrument requiring it and when so affixed, it may be attested by his signature or by the signature of such assistant secretary. The Board of Directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix the seal of the corporation and to attest the affixing by his signature.
Section 9. Assistant Secretary. The assistant secretary, or, if there be more than one, the assistant secretaries in the order determined by the Board of Directors (or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their election) shall, in the absence of the secretary or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the secretary and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.
Section 10. Treasurer. The treasurer shall have the custody of the corporate funds and securities and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the corporation and shall deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors.
He shall disburse the funds of the corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the president and the Board of Directors, at its regular meetings, or when the Board of Directors so requires, an account of all his transactions as treasurer and of the financial condition of the corporation.
If required by the Board of Directors, he shall give the corporation a bond (which shall be renewed every six years) in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors for the faithful performance of the duties of his office and for the restoration to the corporation, in case of his death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in his possession or under his control belonging to the corporation.
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Section 11. Assistant Treasurer. The assistant treasurer, or if there shall be more than one, the assistant treasurers in the order determined by the Board of Directors (or if there be no such determination, then in the order of their election) shall, in the absence of the treasurer or in the event of his inability or refusal to act, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the treasurer and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.

ARTICLE VI
CERTIFICATE OF STOCK
Section 1. Form and Execution of Certificates. Shares of the corporation's stock may be certificated or uncertificated, as provided under Delaware law. Certificates for the shares of stock of the corporation shall be in such form as is consistent with the Certificate of Incorporation and applicable law. Every holder of stock in the corporation shall be entitled to have a certificate, signed by, or in the name of the corporation by, the chairman or vice chairman of the Board of Directors, or the president or a vice president and the treasurer or an assistant treasurer, or the secretary or an assistant secretary of the corporation, certifying the number of shares owned by him in the corporation. Certificates may be issued for partly paid shares and in such case upon the face or back of the certificates issued to represent any such partly paid shares, the total amount of the consideration to be paid therefor, and the amount paid thereon shall be specified. If the corporation shall be authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualification, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the certificate which the corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock, provided that, except as otherwise provided in section 202 of the General Corporation Law of Delaware, in lieu of the foregoing requirements, there may be set forth on the face or back of the certificate which the corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock, a statement that the corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights.
Section 2. Execution of Certificates. Any of or all the signatures on the certificate may be facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the corporation with the same effect as if he were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.
Section 3. Lost Certificates. The Board of Directors may direct a new certificate or certificates to be issued in place of any certificate or certificates theretofore issued by the corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen or destroyed. When
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authorizing such issue of a new certificate or certificates, the Board of Directors may, in its discretion and as a condition precedent to the issuance thereof, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed certificate or certificates, or his legal representative, to advertise the same in such manner as it shall require and/or to give the corporation a bond in such sum as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed.
Section 4. Transfer of Stock. Transfers of record of shares of stock of the corporation shall be made only upon its books by the holders thereof, in person or by attorney duly authorized, and, in the case of stock represented by a certificate, upon surrender to the corporation or the transfer agent of the corporation of a certificate or certificates for shares duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignation or authority to transfer for a like number of shares.
Section 5. Fixing Record Date. In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholder or any adjournment thereof, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which shall not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting, nor more than sixty (60) days prior to any other action. If the Board of Directors so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board of Directors determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be the close of business on the next day preceding the day on which notice is first given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting; and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance herewith at the adjourned meeting.
Section 6. Registered Stockholders. The corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and to hold liable for calls and assessments a person registered on its books as the owner of shares and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of Delaware.

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ARTICLE VII
INDEMNIFICATION
Section 1. Indemnification of Directors and Executive Officers. The corporation shall indemnify its Directors and executive officers to the fullest extent not prohibited by the Delaware General Corporation Law; provided, however, that the corporation may limit the extent of such indemnification by individual contracts with its Directors and executive officers; and, provided, further, that the corporation shall not be required to indemnify any Director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding or part thereof) initiated by such person or any proceeding by such person against the corporation or its Directors, officers, employees or other agents unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by the Board of Directors of the corporation, (iii) such indemnification is provided by the corporation, in its sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in the corporation under the Delaware General Corporation Law.
Section 2. Indemnification of Other Officers, Employees and Other Agents. The corporation shall have power to indemnify its other officers, employees and other agents as set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law.
Section 3. Good Faith.
(a) For purposes of any determination under this Bylaw, a Director or executive officer shall be deemed to have acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, to have had no reasonable cause to believe that his conduct was unlawful, if his action is based on information, opinions, reports and statements, including financial statements and other financial data, in each case prepared or presented by:
    (1) one or more officers or employees of the corporation whom the Director or executive officer believed to be reliable and competent in the matters presented,
    (2) counsel, independent accountants or other persons as to matters which the Director or executive officer believed to be within such person's professional competence; and
    (3) with respect to a Director, a committee of the Board upon which such Director does not serve, as to matters within such Committee's designated authority, which committee the Director believes to merit confidence; so long as, in each case, the Director or executive officer acts without knowledge that would cause such reliance to be unwarranted.
(b) The termination of any proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal proceeding, that he had reasonable cause to believe that his consent was unlawful.
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(c) The provisions of this Section 3 shall not be deemed to be exclusive or to limit in any way the circumstances in which a person may be deemed to have met the applicable standard of conduct set forth by the Delaware General Corporation Law.
Section 4. Expenses. The corporation shall advance, prior to the final disposition of any proceeding, promptly following request therefor, all expenses incurred by any Director or executive officer in connection with such proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such person to repay said amounts if it should be determined ultimately that such person is not entitled to be indemnified under this Bylaw or otherwise. Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless otherwise determined pursuant to Section 4 of this Bylaw, no advance shall be made by the corporation if a determination is reasonably and promptly made
(i) by the Board of Directors by a majority vote of a quorum consisting of Directors who were not parties to the proceeding, or
(ii) if such quorum is not obtainable, or, even if obtainable, a quorum of disinterested Directors so directs, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, that the facts known to the decision-making party at the time such determination is made demonstrate clearly and convincingly that such person acted in bad faith or in a manner that such person did not believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation.
Section 5. Enforcement. Without the necessity of entering into an express contract, all rights to indemnification and advances to Directors and executive officers under this Bylaw shall be deemed to be contractual rights and be effective to the same extent and as if provided for in a contract between the corporation and the Director or executive officer. Any right to indemnification or advances granted by this Bylaw to a Director or executive officer shall be enforceable by or on behalf of the person holding such right in any court of competent jurisdiction if
(i) the claim for indemnification or advances is denied, in whole or in part, or
(ii) no disposition of such claim is made within ninety (90) days of request therefor. The claimant in such enforcement action, if successful in whole or in part, shall be entitled to be paid also the expense of prosecuting his claim. The corporation shall be entitled to raise as a defense to any such action that the claimant has not met the standards of conduct that make it permissible under the Delaware General Corporation Law for the corporation to indemnify the claimant for the amount claimed. Neither the failure of the corporation (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such action that indemnification of the claimant is proper in the circumstances because he has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in the Delaware General Corporation Law, nor an actual determination by the corporation (including its Board of Directors, independent legal counsel or its stockholders) that the claimant has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall be a defense to the action or create a presumption that claimant has not met the applicable standard of conduct.
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Section 6. Non-Exclusivity of Rights. The rights conferred on any person by this Bylaw shall not be exclusive of any other right which such person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, Bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested Directors or otherwise, both as to action in his official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding office. The corporation is specifically authorized to enter into individual contracts with any or all of its Directors, officers, employees or agents respecting indemnification and advances, to the fullest extent not prohibited by the Delaware General Corporation Law.
Section 7. Survival of Rights. The rights conferred on any person by this Bylaw shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a Director, officer, employee or other agent and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.
Section 8. Insurance. To the fullest extent permitted by the Delaware General Corporation Law, the corporation, upon approval by the Board of Directors, may purchase insurance on behalf of any person required or permitted to be indemnified pursuant to this Bylaw.
Section 9. Amendments. Any repeal or modification of this Bylaw shall only be prospective and shall not affect the rights under this Bylaw in effect at the time of the alleged occurrence of any action or omission to act that is the cause of any proceeding against any agent of the corporation.
Section 10. Saving Clause. If this Bylaw or any portion hereof shall be invalidated on any ground by any court of competent jurisdiction, then the corporation shall nevertheless indemnify each Director and executive officer to the full extent not prohibited by any applicable portion of this Bylaw that shall not have been invalidated, or by any other applicable law.
Section 11. Certain Definitions. For the purposes of this Bylaw, the following definitions shall apply:
(a) The term “proceeding” shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, the investigation, preparation, prosecution, defense, settlement, arbitration and appeal of, and the giving of the testimony in, any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative.
(b) The term “expenses” shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, court costs, attorneys' fees, witness fees, fines, amounts paid in settlement or judgment and any other costs and expenses of any nature or kind incurred in connection with any proceeding.
(c) The term the “corporation” shall include, in addition to the resulting corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its Directors, officers, and employees or agents, so that any person who is or was a Director, officer, employee or agent of such constituent corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a Director, officer, employee or agent of another
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corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under the provisions of this Bylaw with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as he would have with respect to such constituent corporation if its separate existence had continued.
(d) References to a “Director,” “officer,” “employee,” or “agent” of the corporation shall include, without limitation, situations where such person is serving at the request of the corporation as a Director, officer, employee, trustee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise.
(e) References to "other enterprises" shall include any employee benefit plans; references to "fines" shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect to an employee benefit plan; and references to "serving at the request of the corporation" shall include any service as a Director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation which imposes duties on, or involves services by, such Director, officer, employee, or agent with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants, or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner "not opposed to the best interests of the corporation" as referred to in this Bylaw.
Section 12. Indemnification under California Law. Prior to the Record Date, the corporation shall indemnify its officers, Directors, employees and agents to the full extent permitted by the California General Corporation Law.

ARTICLE VIII
LOANS TO OFFICERS
Subject to the rules and regulations applicable to the corporation which may otherwise prohibit loans to officers, directors or other employees, the corporation may lend money to, or guarantee any obligation of, or otherwise assist any officer or other employee of the corporation or of its subsidiaries, including any officer or employee who is a Director of the corporation or its subsidiaries, whenever, in the judgment of the Board of Directors, such loan, guarantee or assistance may reasonably be expected to benefit the corporation. The loan, guarantee or other assistance may be with or without interest and may be unsecured, or secured in such manner as the Board of Directors shall approve, including, without limitation, a pledge of shares of stock of the corporation. Nothing in this bylaw shall be deemed to deny, limit or restrict the powers of guaranty or warranty of the corporation at common law or under any statute.

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ARTICLE IX
GENERAL PROVISIONS
Section 1. Declaration of Dividends. Dividends upon the capital stock of the corporation, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, if any, may be declared by the Board of Directors at any regular or special meeting, pursuant to law. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation.
Section 2. Dividend Reserve. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the Directors from time to time, in their absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the corporation, or for such other purposes as the Directors shall think conducive to the interest of the corporation, and the Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve in the manner in which it was created.
Section 3. Execution of Corporate Instruments. All checks or demands for money and notes of the corporation shall be signed by such officer or officers or such other person or persons as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate.
Section 4. Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors.
Section 5. Corporate Seal. The Board of Directors may adopt a corporate seal having inscribed thereon the name of the corporation, the year of its organization and the words "Corporate Seal, Delaware." The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.
Section 6. Annual Report.
(a) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this Bylaw, the Board of Directors shall cause an annual report to be sent to each stockholder of the corporation not later than one hundred twenty (120) days after the close of the corporation's fiscal year. Such report shall include a balance sheet as of the end of such fiscal year and an income statement and statement of changes in financial position for such fiscal year, accompanied by any report thereon of independent accounts or, if there is no such report, the certificate of an authorized officer of the corporation that such statements were prepared without audit from the books and records of the corporation. When there are more than 100 stockholders of record of the corporation's shares, as determined by Section 605 of the California Corporations Code, additional information as required by Section 1501(b) of the California Corporations Code shall also be contained in such report, provided that if the corporation has a class of securities registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, that Act shall take precedence. Such report shall be sent to stockholders at least fifteen (15) days prior to the next annual meeting of stockholders after the end of the fiscal year to which it relates.
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(b) If and so long as there are fewer than 100 holders of record of the corporation's shares, the requirement of sending of an annual report to the stockholders of the corporation is hereby expressly waived.
Section 7. Forum for Adjudication of Disputes. Unless the corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the corporation, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, officer or other employee of the corporation to the corporation or the corporation’s stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law of Delaware or the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. If any action the subject matter of which is within the scope of the preceding sentence is filed in a court other than a court located within the State of Delaware (a “Foreign Action”) in the name of any stockholder, such stockholder shall be deemed to have consented to (i) the personal jurisdiction of the state and federal courts located within the State of Delaware in connection with any action brought in any such court to enforce the precedent sentence and (ii) having service of process made upon such stockholder in any such action by service upon such stockholder’s counsel in the Foreign Action as agent for such stockholder.
Section 8. Electronic Signatures. Any document, including, without limitation, any consent, agreement, certificate or instrument, required by the General Corporation Law of Delaware, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws to be executed by any officer, director, stockholder, employee or agent of the corporation may be executed using a facsimile or other form of electronic signature to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. All other contracts, agreements, certificates or instruments to be executed on behalf of the corporation may be executed using a facsimile or other form of electronic signature to fullest extent permitted by applicable law.

ARTICLE X
AMENDMENTS
Section 1. Amendments.
(a) Except as otherwise set forth in Section 9 of Article VII of these Bylaws, the Bylaws may be altered or amended or new Bylaws adopted by the affirmative vote of a majority of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of capital stock of the corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of Directors (the "Voting Stock"). The Board of Directors shall also have the power, if such power is conferred upon the Board of Directors by the Certificate of Incorporation, to adopt, amend or repeal Bylaws.
(b) Notwithstanding any other provisions of these Bylaws or any provision of law which might otherwise permit a lesser vote or no vote, but in addition to any affirmative vote of the
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holders of any particular class or series of the Voting Stock required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or any Preferred Stock Designation (as the term is defined in the Certificate of Incorporation), the affirmative vote of the holders of at least sixty-six and two-thirds percent (66-2/3%) of the voting power of all of the then-outstanding shares of the Voting Stock, voting together as a single class, shall be required to alter, amend or repeal this paragraph (b) or Section 2 or Section 10 of Article II or Section 1 of Article III of these Bylaws.
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CERTIFICATE OF SECRETARY
The undersigned, being the Secretary of Ligand Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, a Delaware corporation, does hereby certify the foregoing to be the Bylaws of said corporation, as adopted by the incorporator and Directors of the corporation and which remain in full force and effect as of the date hereof.
Executed at San Diego, California effective as of _October 26______, 2020

    /s/ Charles S. Berkman                
Charles S. Berkman, Secretary
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